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Scientific Articles   |    
The Effect of the Remplissage Procedure on Shoulder Stability and Range of MotionAn in Vitro Biomechanical Assessment
Ilia Elkinson, BHB, MBChB, FRACS1; Joshua W. Giles, BESc1; Kenneth J. Faber, MD, MHPE, FRCSC1; Harm W. Boons, MD1; Louis M. Ferreira, BSc, BESc1; James A. Johnson, PhD1; George S. Athwal, MD, FRCSC1
1 H.U.L.C., St. Joseph’s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, ON N6A 4L6, Canada. E-mail address for G.S. Athwal: gathwal@uwo.ca
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Investigation performed at the H.U.L.C. Bioengineering Research Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada



Disclosure: One or more of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of an aspect of this work. In addition, one or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Jun 06;94(11):1003-1012. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.01956
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Abstract

Background: 

The remplissage procedure may be performed as an adjunct to Bankart repair to treat recurrent glenohumeral dislocation associated with an engaging Hill-Sachs humeral head defect. The purpose of this in vitro biomechanical study was to examine the effects of the remplissage procedure on glenohumeral joint motion and stability.

Methods: 

Cadaveric shoulders (n = 8) were mounted on a biomechanical testing apparatus that applies simulated loads to the rotator cuff and the anterior, middle, and posterior heads of the deltoid muscle. Testing was performed with the shoulder intact, after creation of the Bankart lesion, and after repair of the Bankart lesion. In addition, testing was performed after Bankart repair with and without remplissage in shoulders with 15% and 30% Hill-Sachs defects. Shoulder motion and glenohumeral translation were recorded with an optical tracking system. Outcomes measured included stability (joint stiffness and defect engagement) and internal-external glenohumeral rotational motion in adduction and in 90° of composite shoulder abduction.

Results: 

In specimens with a 15% Hill-Sachs defect, Bankart repair combined with remplissage resulted in a significant reduction in internal-external range of motion in adduction (15.1° ± 11.1°, p = 0.039), but not in abduction (7.7° ± 9.9, p = 0.38), compared with the intact condition. In specimens with a 30% Hill-Sachs defect, repair that included remplissage also significantly reduced internal-external range of motion in adduction (14.5° ± 11.3°, p = 0.049) but not in abduction (6.2° ± 9.3°, p = 0.60). In specimens with a 15% Hill-Sachs defect, addition of remplissage significantly increased joint stiffness compared with isolated Bankart repair (p = 0.038), with the stiffness trending toward surpassing the level in the intact condition (p = 0.060). In specimens with a 30% Hill-Sachs defect, addition of remplissage restored joint stiffness to approximately normal (p = 0.41 compared with the intact condition). All of the specimens with a 30% Hill-Sachs defect engaged and dislocated after Bankart repair alone. The addition of remplissage was effective in preventing engagement and dislocation in all specimens. None of the specimens with a 15% Hill-Sachs defect engaged or dislocated after Bankart repair.

Conclusions: 

In this experimental model, addition of remplissage provided little additional benefit to a Bankart repair in specimens with a 15% Hill-Sachs defect, and it also reduced specific shoulder motions. However, Bankart repair alone was ineffective in preventing engagement and recurrent dislocation in specimens with a 30% Hill-Sachs defect. The addition of remplissage to the Bankart repair in these specimens prevented engagement and enhanced stability, although at the expense of some reduction in shoulder motion.

Clinical Relevance: 

The remplissage procedure has substantial effects on shoulder stability and motion.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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