0
Scientific Articles   |    
Landmarks for Rotational Alignment of the Humeral Component During Elbow Arthroplasty
Marlis T. Sabo, MD1; George S. Athwal, MD1; Graham J.W. King, MD, MSc1
1 Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph's Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, Suite D0-202, London, ON N6A 4L6, Canada. E-mail address for G.J.W. King: gking@uwo.ca
View Disclosures and Other Information
  • Disclosure statement for author(s): PDF

Investigation performed at the Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph's Health Care, London, Ontario, Canada



Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. One or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Oct 03;94(19):1794-1800. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.01740
5 Recommendations (Recommend) | 3 Comments | Saved by 3 Users Save Case

Abstract

Background: 

The reference points for rotational orientation of the humeral component during elbow arthroplasty typically are on the articular surface or the humeral epicondyles. With bone loss, these landmarks may be compromised. Our purpose was to assess whether the flat posterior humeral cortex proximal to the olecranon fossa is a reliable landmark with which to orient the humeral component during elbow arthroplasty.

Methods: 

Fifty cadaveric elbows (mean age [and standard deviation] at the time of death, 73 ± 12 years) underwent computed tomography (CT) scans. The flexion-extension axis (FEA) was determined by sphere-fitting the capitellar surface and circle-fitting the narrowest portion of the trochlea. The posterior humeral cortical line (PCL) was drawn on the flat posterior humeral cortex proximal to the olecranon fossa. The transepicondylar axis (TEA) was determined by a line between the most prominent points on the epicondyles. The angles between the PCL and FEA and the TEA and FEA were calculated and were compared by using two-tailed t tests.

Results: 

The PCL was externally rotated by a mean (and standard deviation) of 14.0° ± 4.2° (p < 0.001) relative to the FEA (males: 12.6° ± 3.6°, females: 16.4° ± 5.2°; p = 0.002). The TEA was externally rotated by a mean of 2.8° ± 3.5° (p < 0.001) relative to the FEA (males: 2.7° ± 3.4°, females: 2.6° ± 3.7°; p = 0.96). The intraobserver and interobserver reliability was >0.98 for the capitellar and trochlear centers, while the cumulative intraobserver and interobserver reliability was 0.8 and 0.5 for the FEA-PCL angle and 0.4 and 0.3 for the FEA-TEA angle.

Conclusions: 

The posterior humeral cortex is a reproducible landmark that is externally rotated with respect to the flexion-extension axis of the distal part of the humerus. The surgeon must be aware of the need for an internal rotation correction factor and consider the influence of the patient’s sex on this correction when using the posterior humeral cortex as a landmark to avoid humeral component malrotation.

Clinical Relevance: 

While the PCL is better than the TEA as a reference point, neither is able to accurately identify the FEA because of considerable normal variation. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of computer-assisted techniques or a preoperative CT scan of the contralateral, unaffected elbow in identifying rotational landmarks for the elbow undergoing arthroplasty.

Figures in this Article
    Sign In to Your Personal ProfileSign In To Access Full Content
    Not a Subscriber?
    Get online access for 30 days for $35
    New to JBJS?
    Sign up for a full subscription to both the print and online editions
    Register for a FREE limited account to get full access to all CME activities, to comment on public articles, or to sign up for alerts.
    Register for a FREE limited account to get full access to all CME activities
    Have a subscription to the print edition?
    Current subscribers to The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery in either the print or quarterly DVD formats receive free online access to JBJS.org.
    Forgot your password?
    Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.

     
    Forgot your username or need assistance? Please contact customer service at subs@jbjs.org. If your access is provided
    by your institution, please contact you librarian or administrator for username and password information. Institutional
    administrators, to reset your institution's master username or password, please contact subs@jbjs.org

    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
    CME Activities Associated with This Article
    Submit a Comment
    Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
    Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discretion of JBJS editorial staff.

    * = Required Field
    (if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
    Example: John Doe





    Related Content
    The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
    JBJS Case Connector
    Topic Collections
    Related Audio and Videos
    PubMed Articles
    Guidelines
    The treatment of glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis. -American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) | 9/11/2009
    Results provided by:
    PubMed
    Clinical Trials
    Readers of This Also Read...
    JBJS Jobs
    04/22/2014
    New York - Columbia University Medical Ctr/Dept of Ortho.Surg
    02/05/2014
    OR - The Center - Orthopedic and Neurosurgical Care and Research
    11/15/2013
    LA - Ochsner Health System