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Scientific Articles   |    
Increasing the Elution of Vancomycin from High-Dose Antibiotic-Loaded Bone Cement: A Novel Preparation Technique
Tanay J. Amin, MD1; Jeffrey W. Lamping, MS1; Kelly J. Hendricks, MD1; Terence E. McIff, PhD1
1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, M.S. 3037, Kansas City, KS 66160. E-mail address for T.E. McIff: tmciff@kumc.edu
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Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas

This article was chosen to appear electronically on September 26, 2012, in advance of publication in a regularly scheduled issue.

A commentary by Clifford B. Jones, MD, is linked to the online version of this article at jbjs.org.



Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. None of the authors, or their institution(s), have had any financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with any entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. Also, no author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Nov 07;94(21):1946-1951. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.00014
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Abstract

Background: 

Antibiotic bone cement is commonly used in staged revision arthroplasty as well as the treatment of open fractures. Multiple factors affect antibiotic elution from bone cement. This study was performed to investigate the effect of two variables, the quantity of liquid monomer and the timing of antibiotic addition, on the ultimate elution of antibiotic from bone cement.

Methods: 

Vancomycin-loaded Simplex P and SmartSet MV bone cement was prepared with three different methods: a common surgical technique, a mixing technique that doubled the amount of liquid monomer, and a novel technique that delayed antibiotic addition until after thirty seconds of polymerization. Cylinders of a standardized size were created from each preparation. The elution profiles of five cylinders from each preparation were measured over six weeks with use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Cylinders were tested in compression to quantify strength.

Results: 

Delayed antibiotic addition resulted in significantly greater cumulative elution over six weeks (p < 0.0001), with minimal reduction in strength, compared with the other groups. Doubling the liquid monomer significantly reduced cumulative elution over six weeks compared with either of the other techniques (p < 0.0001). Vancomycin elution from Simplex P was 52% greater and vancomycin elution from SmartSet MV was 25% greater in the delayed-antibiotic-addition groups than it was in the corresponding standard surgical technique groups. The majority of the antibiotic was released over the first week in all groups.

Conclusions: 

High-dose-antibiotic bone cement prepared with delayed antibiotic addition increased vancomycin elution compared with the standard surgical preparation. Incorporating additional liquid monomer decreased vancomycin elution from high-dose-antibiotic cement. We recommend preparing high-dose-antibiotic bone cement with the delayed-antibiotic-addition technique and not incorporating additional liquid monomer.

Clinical Relevance: 

Both the relative volume of liquid monomer and the timing of antibiotic addition have substantial effects on the elution of antibiotic from bone cement.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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