0
Scientific Articles   |    
Smoking Cessation Related to Improved Patient-Reported Pain Scores Following Spinal Care
Caleb Behrend, MD1; Mark Prasarn, MD2; Ellen Coyne, MS1; MaryBeth Horodyski, EdD, ATC3; John Wright, MS1; Glenn R. Rechtine, MD1
1 Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 665, Rochester, NY 14625. E-mail address for C. Behrend: behrend@ucla.edu
2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6400 Fannin, Suite 1700, Houston, TX 77030
3 UF Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine Institute, University of Florida, P.O. Box 112727, Gainesville, FL 32611
View Disclosures and Other Information
  • Disclosure statement for author(s): PDF

Investigation performed at the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York

Disclaimer: The contents of this paper do not represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States Government.

This article was chosen to appear electronically on October 24, 2012, in advance of publication in a regularly scheduled issue.



Disclosure: One or more of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of an aspect of this work. In addition, one or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Dec 05;94(23):2161-2166. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.01598
5 Recommendations (Recommend) | 3 Comments | Saved by 3 Users Save Case

Abstract

Background: 

Smoking is associated with low back pain, intervertebral disc disease, inferior patient outcomes following surgical interventions, and increased rates of postoperative complications. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of smoking and smoking cessation on pain and disability in patients with painful spinal disorders.

Methods: 

We examined a prospectively maintained database of records for 5333 patients with axial or radicular pain from a spinal disorder with regard to smoking history and the patient assessment of pain on four visual analog scales during the course of care. Confounding factors, including secondary gain, sex, age, and body mass index, were also examined. The mean duration of follow-up was eight months. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed with variables including smoking status, secondary gain status, sex, depression, and age as predictors of pain and disability.

Results: 

Compared with patients who had never smoked, patients who were current smokers reported significantly greater pain in all visual analog scale pain ratings (p < 0.001). The mean improvement in reported pain over the course of care was significantly different between nonsmokers and current smokers (p <0.001). Compared with patients who had continued to smoke, those who had quit smoking during the course of care reported significantly greater improvement in pain in visual analog scale pain ratings for worst (p = 0.013), current (p < 0.05), and average weekly pain (p = 0.024). The mean improvement in the visual analog scale pain ratings was clinically important in patients in all three groups of nonsmokers. As a group, those who had continued smoking during treatment had no clinically important improvement in reported pain.

Conclusions: 

Given a strong association between improved patient-reported pain and smoking cessation, this study supports the need for smoking cessation programs for patients with a painful spinal disorder.

Level of Evidence: 

Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Figures in this Article
    Sign In to Your Personal ProfileSign In To Access Full Content
    Not a Subscriber?
    Get online access for 30 days for $35
    New to JBJS?
    Sign up for a full subscription to both the print and online editions
    Register for a FREE limited account to get full access to all CME activities, to comment on public articles, or to sign up for alerts.
    Register for a FREE limited account to get full access to all CME activities
    Have a subscription to the print edition?
    Current subscribers to The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery in either the print or quarterly DVD formats receive free online access to JBJS.org.
    Forgot your password?
    Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.

     
    Forgot your username or need assistance? Please contact customer service at subs@jbjs.org. If your access is provided
    by your institution, please contact you librarian or administrator for username and password information. Institutional
    administrators, to reset your institution's master username or password, please contact subs@jbjs.org

    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
    CME Activities Associated with This Article
    Submit a Comment
    Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
    Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discretion of JBJS editorial staff.

    * = Required Field
    (if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
    Example: John Doe





    Related Content
    The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
    JBJS Case Connector
    Topic Collections
    Related Audio and Videos
    PubMed Articles
    Clinical Trials
    Readers of This Also Read...
    JBJS Jobs
    01/22/2014
    PA - Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center
    03/19/2014
    VA - OrthoVirginia
    02/05/2014
    OR - The Center - Orthopedic and Neurosurgical Care and Research
    04/02/2014
    LA - Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport