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Do the Skills Acquired by Novice Surgeons Using Anatomic Dry Models Transfer Effectively to the Task of Diagnostic Knee Arthroscopy Performed on Cadaveric Specimens?
Aaron Butler, BS1; Tyson Olson, BS1; Ryan Koehler, BS1; Gregg Nicandri, MD1
1 Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642. E-mail address for G. Nicandri: Gregg_Nicandri@urmc.rochester.edu
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Investigation performed at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York



Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. One or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2013 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2013 Feb 06;95(3):e15 1-8. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.00491
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Abstract

Background: 

The use of surgical simulation in orthopaedic education is increasing; however, its ideal place within the training curriculum remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of training novice surgeons on an anatomic dry model of the knee prior to training them to perform diagnostic arthroscopy on cadaveric specimens.

Methods: 

Fourteen medical students were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group was trained to perform diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee on anatomic dry models prior to training on cadaveric specimens. The control group was trained only on cadaveric specimens. Proficiency was assessed with use of a modified version of a previously validated objective assessment of arthroscopic skill, the Basic Arthroscopic Knee Skill Scoring System (BAKSSS). The mean number of trials required to attain minimal proficiency when performing diagnostic knee arthroscopy was compared between the groups. The cumulative transfer effectiveness ratio (CTER) was calculated to measure the transfer of skills acquired by the experimental group.

Results: 

The mean number of trials to demonstrate minimum proficiency was significantly lower in the experimental group (2.57) than in the control group (4.57) (p < 0.01). The mean time to demonstrate proficiency was also significantly less in the experimental group (37.51 minutes) than in the control group (60.48 minutes) (p < 0.01). The CTER of dry-model training for the task of performing diagnostic knee arthroscopy on cadaveric specimens was 0.2.

Conclusions: 

Previous training utilizing an anatomic dry knee model resulted in improved proficiency for novice surgeons learning to perform diagnostic knee arthroscopy on cadaveric specimens. A CTER of 0.2 suggests that dry models can serve as a useful adjunct to cadaveric training for diagnostic knee arthroscopy but cannot entirely replace it within the orthopaedic curriculum. Further work is necessary to determine the optimal amount of training on anatomic dry models that will maximize transfer effectiveness and to determine how well skills obtained in the simulated environment transfer to the operating room.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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