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Coxa Profunda Is Not a Useful Radiographic Parameter for Diagnosing Pincer-Type Femoroacetabular Impingement
Jeffrey J. Nepple, MD1; Charles L. Lehmann, MD1; James R. Ross, MD1; Perry L. Schoenecker, MD1; John C. Clohisy, MD1
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, West Pavilion 11300, St. Louis, MO 63110. E-mail address for J.C. Clohisy: clohisyj@wudosis.wustl.edu
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Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri



Disclosure: One or more of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of an aspect of this work. One or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2013 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2013 Mar 06;95(5):417-423. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.01664
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Abstract

Background: 

Coxa profunda is commonly viewed as a radiographic parameter that is indicative of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement, and this finding can impact diagnostic and surgical decision-making. Validation of coxa profunda as a measure of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement has not been rigorously analyzed. Our hypothesis was that coxa profunda is a very common radiographic finding in females and is not a finding that is specifically associated with pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement.

Methods: 

A retrospective review was performed to determine the prevalence of coxa profunda in four groups of hips: those with acetabular dysplasia (fifty-eight hips), femoroacetabular impingement (fifty hips), symptomatic residual Legg-Calvé-Perthes deformities (sixteen hips), and asymptomatic hips (thirty-three). Coxa profunda was present when the floor of the acetabular fossa touched or was medial to the ilioischial line. The association between coxa profunda and hip disorder diagnosis, lateral center-edge angle, acetabular inclination, patient age, and sex was analyzed.

Results: 

Coxa profunda was seen in 55% of the 157 hips and was slightly less common in the hips with acetabular dysplasia or residual Legg-Calvé-Perthes deformities (41% and 31%, respectively). Coxa profunda was evident in 76% of the thirty-three asymptomatic hips compared with 64% of the fifty hips with femoroacetabular impingement. Coxa profunda was more common in females than males (70% compared with 24%; p < 0.001). Acetabular overcoverage (a lateral center-edge angle of >40° or acetabular inclination of <0°) was seen in only 22% of hips with coxa profunda.

Conclusions: 

Coxa profunda should be considered a normal radiographic finding, at least in females. Coxa profunda is a nonspecific radiographic finding, seen in a variety of hip disorders and asymptomatic hips. The presence of coxa profunda is neither necessary nor sufficient to support a diagnosis of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement.

Level of Evidence: 

Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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