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Scientific Articles   |    
An Anatomic Study of the Epiphyseal Tubercle and Its Importance in the Pathogenesis of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
Raymond W. Liu, MD1; Douglas G. Armstrong, MD2; Ari D. Levine, MD1; Allison Gilmore, MD1; George H. Thompson, MD1; Daniel R. Cooperman, MD1
1 Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, RBC 6081, Cleveland, OH 44106. E-mail address for R.W. Liu: raymond.liu@uhhospitals.org
2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, 30 Hope Drive, Building “A,” Hershey, PA 17033
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Investigation performed at the Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, and Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio



Disclosure: One or more of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of an aspect of this work. In addition, one or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. Also, one or more of the authors has had another relationship, or has engaged in another activity, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2013 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2013 Mar 20;95(6):e34 1-8. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.00474
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Abstract

Background: 

It has been proposed that the epiphyseal tubercle on the inferior surface of the capital femoral epiphysis may be responsible for the clinical distinction between a stable and an unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The anatomy of the tubercle and its relationship to the lateral epiphyseal vessels have not previously been rigorously defined.

Methods: 

Twenty-two cadaveric capital femoral epiphyses from donors who had been three to seventeen years of age were analyzed and then digitized with use of a high-resolution laser scanner. The height, location, and approximate surface area of the epiphyseal tubercle were measured and were normalized to the size of the entire capital femoral epiphysis.

Results: 

In all specimens except that from the youngest donor, the foramina for the lateral epiphyseal vessels were visible and were located directly superior to the epiphyseal tubercle. The height of the epiphyseal tubercle was 4.4 ± 1.1 mm. When normalized to the overall size of the capital femoral epiphysis, the relative height (r = 0.71) and relative area (r = 0.56) of the epiphyseal tubercle decreased with increasing age. The epiphyseal tubercle was consistently located in the posterosuperior quadrant, with its position being more posterior and less superior in specimens from younger donors.

Conclusions: 

The epiphyseal tubercle appears to be a major stabilizer, or keystone, of the capital femoral epiphysis and the lateral epiphyseal vessels. Its relative decrease in height and surface area with increasing age may help explain the susceptibility of individuals to SCFE in adolescence: in a stable SCFE, the physis rotates on the tubercle; however, in an unstable SCFE, the tubercle dislodges, leading to more substantial displacement of the capital femoral epiphysis and the lateral epiphyseal vessels, risking osteonecrosis.

Clinical Relevance: 

These anatomic data offer a possible insight into the pathogenesis of SCFE and the potential complication of osteonecrosis. When fixation of an SCFE is performed with a single screw, the posterosuperior quadrant should be avoided to maximize any possible derotational effect of the epiphyseal tubercle.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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