Progressive advances continue to be made in several areas of orthopaedic research. The major focus is on biologic solutions to musculoskeletal injury and degenerative joint disease. At the recent meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, studies and workshops were presented on stem cells, growth factors, the genetic basis of disease, and tissue-engineering. Investigations in these areas have the potential to improve current treatments and to lead to the development of novel therapies and implants. There is continuing progress in the understanding of the genetic basis of diseases, such as degenerative joint disease, and the biologic response to injury. Biomechanics and engineering also continue to be important areas of investigation. In particular, several laboratories are investigating the effect of mechanical stimuli on musculoskeletal development, chondrocyte metabolism, skeletal repair, and tissue-engineered constructs.