Microorganisms are transmitted in hospitals mainly by contact, droplet, and
Orthopaedic surgeons have a substantial occupational risk of contracting a
blood-borne infection because of frequent handling of sharp instruments and
objects during operative procedures.
Aerosolization means the formation of aerosols and droplets when
blood or other body fluids are mechanically disturbed. Smaller particles
(<5 µm) will remain suspended in air. Pathogens that can survive in
these small airborne particles may cause infection if they are inhaled.
Aerosol-generating procedures in patients with tuberculosis or severe acute
respiratory syndrome (SARS) may facilitate airborne transmission.
The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention have established guidelines for isolation
precautions in hospitals.