Current Concepts Review   |    
Transmission and Prevention of Occupational Infections in Orthopaedic Surgeons
Kwok Chuen Wong, MBChB, FRCSEd(Orth)1; Kwok Sui Leung, MD, FRCSEd1
1 Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5/F, Clinical Science Building, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. E-mail address for K.C. Wong: skcwong@ort.cuhk.edu.hk
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The authors did not receive grants or outside funding in support of their research or preparation of this manuscript. They did not receive payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2004 May 01;86(5):1065-1076
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Microorganisms are transmitted in hospitals mainly by contact, droplet, and airborne routes.

Orthopaedic surgeons have a substantial occupational risk of contracting a blood-borne infection because of frequent handling of sharp instruments and objects during operative procedures.

Aerosolization means the formation of aerosols and droplets when blood or other body fluids are mechanically disturbed. Smaller particles (<5 µm) will remain suspended in air. Pathogens that can survive in these small airborne particles may cause infection if they are inhaled.

Aerosol-generating procedures in patients with tuberculosis or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) may facilitate airborne transmission.

The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have established guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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