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Uncemented Glenoid Component in Total Shoulder ArthroplastySurvivorship and Outcomes
Scott David Martin, MD1; David Zurakowski, PhD2; Thomas S. Thornhill, MD1
1 Department of Orthopedics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115. E-mail address for S.D. Martin: sdmartin@partners.org
2 Department of Orthopedics and Biostatistics, Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115
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Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopedics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2005 Jun 01;87(6):1284-1292. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.C.00947
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Background: Glenoid component loosening continues to be a major factor affecting the long-term survivorship of total shoulder replacements. Radiolucent lines, cement fracture, migration, and loosening requiring revision are common problems with cemented glenoid components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of total shoulder arthroplasty with an uncemented glenoid component and to identify predictors of glenoid component failure.

Methods: One hundred and forty-seven consecutive total shoulder arthroplasties were performed in 132 patients (mean age, 63.3 years) with use of an uncemented glenoid component fixed with screws between 1988 and 1996. One hundred and forty shoulders in 124 patients were available for follow-up at an average of 7.5 years. One shoulder in which the arthroplasty had failed at 2.4 years and for which the duration of follow-up was four years was also included for completeness. The preoperative diagnoses included osteoarthritis in seventy-two shoulders and rheumatoid arthritis in fifty-five.

Results: Radiolucency was noted around the glenoid component and/or screws in fifty-three of the 140 shoulders. The mean modified ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons) score (and standard deviation) improved from 15.6 ± 11.8 points preoperatively to 75.8 ± 17.5 points at the time of follow-up. Eighty-five shoulders were not painful, forty-two were slightly or mildly painful, ten were moderately painful, and three were severely painful. Fifteen (11%) of the glenoid components failed clinically, and ten of them also had radiographic signs of failure. Eleven other shoulders had radiographic signs of failure but no symptoms at the time of writing. Three factors had a significant independent association with clinical failure: male gender (p = 0.02), pain (p < 0.01), and radiolucency adjacent to the flat tray (p < 0.001). In addition, the annual risk of implant revision was nearly seven times higher for patients with radiographic signs of failure. Clinical survivorship was 95% at five years and 85% at ten years.

Conclusions: The failure rates of the total shoulder arthroplasties in this study were higher than those in previously reported studies of cemented polyethylene components with similar durations of follow-up. Screw breakage and excessive polyethylene wear were common problems that may lead to additional failures of these uncemented glenoid components in the future.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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