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Foreign-Body Osteoarticular Infection by Brucella melitensisA Report of Three Cases
Mireia Cairó, MD1; Esther Calbo, MD1; Lucía Gómez, MD1; Alfredo Matamala, MD1; Jordi Asunción, MD1; Eva Cuchi, MD1; Javier Garau, MD, PhD1
1 Services of Infectious Diseases (M.C., E.C., L.G., and J.G.), Orthopaedic Surgery (A.M. and J.A.), and Microbiology (E.C.), Department of Medicine, Hospital Mútua de Terrassa, University of Barcelona, Plaza Dr Robert, 5, 08221 Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail address for L. Gómez: lucia.gomez@catalonia.net
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The authors did not receive grants or outside funding in support of their research for or preparation of this manuscript. They did not receive payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the Hospital Mútua de Terrassa, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2006 Jan 01;88(1):202-204. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.D.02656
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Brucellosis, a zoonosis, is an important cause of human disease in many parts of the world. Brucellae are small, gram-negative nonsporulating rods or coccobacilli that are transmitted from infected animals, mainly cattle and other domesticated ruminants (e.g., camels). Brucellae are shed in the feces, milk, and urine of infected animals and are transmitted to humans through the ingestion of contaminated dairy products or through the inhalation of aerosolized infected fecal particles. They can also be directly transmitted through wounds in exposed individuals such as farmers, veterinarians, and laboratory workers. Travelers usually acquire the infection after consuming contaminated foods. Dairy products, especially soft cheeses, unpasteurized milk, and ice cream, are the most frequently implicated sources. Various Brucella species can produce human disease, including Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis, and, rarely, Brucella canis. Brucella melitensis is, by far, the most common cause of human disease and is mainly acquired from sheep, goats, and camels. In Spain, where brucellosis is still present in some rural communities, 861 new cases were diagnosed in 20021. Brucella melitensis was the main causative agent; Brucella abortus and Brucella suis rarely cause disease in swine and cattle in our environment.
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