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Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Doubled Semitendinosus and Gracilis Tendons and Lateral Extra-Articular Reconstruction
Andrea Ferretti, MD1; Fabio Conteduca, MD2; Edoardo Monaco, MD2; Angelo De Carli, MD2; Carmelo D'Arrigo, MD2
1 Via di Grottarossa 1035/1039, 00189 Rome, Italy. E-mail address: aferretti51@virgilio.it
2 Orthopaedic Unit and “Kirk Kilgour” Sports Injury Center, Sant'Andrea Hospital, University “La Sapienza,” Via Lidia 73, 00179 Rome, Italy. E-mail address for F. Conteduca: conte@conteduca.com. E-mail address for E. Monaco: edoardo.monaco@tin.it. E-mail address for A. De Carli: angelo.decarli@tin.it. E-mail address for C. D'Arrigo: cdarrigo@tiscali.it
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The authors did not receive grants or outside funding in support of their research for or preparation of this manuscript. They did not receive payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the Orthopaedic Unit and "Kirk Kilgour" Sports Injury Center, Sant'Andrea Hospital, University "La Sapienza," Rome, Italy

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2006 Nov 01;88(11):2373-2379. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.00064
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Background: The outcome of revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has only rarely been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of revision anterior cruciate ligament surgery with use of an autogenous doubled semitendinosus and gracilis graft in association with an extra-articular procedure.

Methods: Between 1997 and 2003, thirty patients underwent a repeat reconstruction of a previously reconstructed torn anterior cruciate ligament with use of a doubled semitendinosus and gracilis graft combined with an extra-articular reconstruction. Primary reconstruction had been done with an autogenous patellar tendon graft in twenty-six patients and with a prosthetic ligament in four patients; the average time from the primary reconstruction to the revision was five years. Functional outcomes, graft survival, and radiographic outcomes were evaluated at a mean of five years. A graft was considered to have failed when a revision was done or when the side-to-side difference on KT-1000 arthrometer testing was >5 mm and/or the pivot-shift test grade was greater than a trace.

Results: One patient underwent another revision reconstruction because of graft failure at three years postoperatively. The mean International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee score for the remaining twenty-nine patients was 84 ± 12 points, and the mean Lysholm knee score was 90 ± 10 points. The side-to-side difference as measured with the KT-1000 arthrometer with maximum manual force was <3 mm in twenty patients (of the twenty-eight who returned for follow-up), between 3 and 5 mm in six patients, and >5 mm in two patients. The result of the pivot shift examination was normal in fifteen patients, slightly positive in eleven patients, and positive in two patients. Twenty-five percent of the patients showed no radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease.

Conclusions: Revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with use of an autogenous doubled semitendinosus and gracilis graft combined with an extra-articular procedure provided satisfactory functional outcomes, with a failure rate of 10%.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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