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Unsuspected Lymphoma Diagnosed with Use of Biopsy During Kyphoplasty
Michael K. Shindle, MD1; Wakenda Tyler, MD, MPH1; Folorunsho Edobor-Osula, BA1; Michael J. Gardner, MD1; Lisa Shindle, MSN, NP1; Jose Toro, MD1; Joseph M. Lane, MD1
1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021. E-mail address for M.K. Shindle: shindlem@hss.edu
View Disclosures and Other Information
In support of their research for or preparation of this manuscript, one or more of the authors received grants or outside funding from Kyphon, Inc. None of the authors received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2006 Dec 01;88(12):2721-2724. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.00100
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Background: Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. In selecting appropriate patients for these procedures, it is important to distinguish the pain caused by a fracture from other causes of back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying, previously unrecognized malignant tumors in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. Our hypothesis was that an unsuspected malignant tumor will exist and that a bone-marrow aspiration from the iliac crest would enhance our ability to detect a malignant tumor.

Methods: A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and a concurrent bone-marrow aspiration from the iliac crest were performed in order to identify latent hematopoietic dyscrasias. Over a four-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 523 vertebral levels as well as iliac crest bone-marrow aspirations were performed in 238 patients. Both specimens were evaluated histologically, and the prevalence of an underlying occult malignant neoplasm was determined.

Results: All specimens from the vertebral bodies showed signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. However, in three patients, both the bone biopsy specimen and the bone-marrow aspirate showed evidence of B-cell lymphoma. The bone-marrow aspirate did not provide any additional information compared with the vertebral body biopsy specimen, and multiple myeloma was not identified in any patient.

Conclusions: Lymphoma is an uncommon cause of a vertebral compression fracture, but on the basis of our experience in this series, we recommend that vertebral body biopsy specimens be obtained in all patients managed with kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty to rule out an unsuspected malignant tumor. However, we do not recommend the routine use of an additional bone-marrow aspiration from the iliac crest during vertebral augmentation procedures because doing so did not appear to enhance our ability to detect a malignant tumor.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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