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Functional Significance of Bone Density Measurements in Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Robert P. Huang, MD1; Catherine G. Ambrose, PhD2; Elroy Sullivan, PhD1; Richard J. Haynes, MD1
1 Shriners Hospital for Children-Houston, 6977 Main Street, Houston, TX 77030-3701. E-mail address for R.P. Huang: rhuang@shrinenet.org
2 Department of Orthopaedics, University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston, 6431 Fannin, Suite 6148, Houston, TX 77030
View Disclosures and Other Information
The authors did not receive grants or outside funding in support of their research for or preparation of this manuscript. They did not receive payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at Shriners Hospital for Children-Houston and University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston, Houston, Texas

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2006 Jun 01;88(6):1324-1330. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.E.00333
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Abstract

Background: The treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta has been directed at improvement of bone mineral density, yet the importance of bone mineral density in predicting functional and clinical outcome in this patient population has not been demonstrated. We used a validated functional outcome measure to identify the relationship between bone mineral density and physical function in children with osteogenesis imperfecta, and we also evaluated the relationship of bone mineral density to the rate of surgery and fracture in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

Methods: Twenty patients (age range, four to seventeen years) with osteogenesis imperfecta who had undergone bone mineral densitometry as measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine, wrist, and proximal aspect of the femur between November 1999 and April 2001 were retrospectively analyzed. Functional outcome was measured with use of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. These questionnaires were completed by the parents of all twenty patients and, in addition, by fifteen patients in the study who were between the ages of eleven and eighteen years. Fracture and surgery rates were calculated on the basis of the number of documented fractures and surgical procedures that the patient had had from the time of the initial presentation until the time of the latest follow-up visit.

Results: There were significant relationships between the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and the scores obtained on the parent-completed questionnaires with regard to upper-extremity functioning (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), transfers and basic mobility (r = 0.55, p = 0.01), sports and physical functioning (r = 0.55, p = 0.01), and global functioning (r = 0.60, p < 0.004). There were also significant relationships between the bone mineral density of the wrist and the scores obtained on the child-completed questionnaires with regard to upper-extremity functioning (r = 0.82, p < 0.01), sports and physical functioning (r = 0.76, p < 0.01), and global functioning (r = 0.83, p = 0.001). There were significant negative relationships between the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and the rate of fractures (r = -0.69, p < 0.001) and the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and the rate of surgery (r = -0.60, p < 0.01).

Conclusions: There is a relationship between bone mineral density and the functional outcome, rate of fracture, and rate of surgery in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Bone mineral density appears to be an indicator of disease severity and may be predictive of long-term functional outcome. To establish specific guidelines for treatment, more data on normative bone-mineral density in children with osteogenesis imperfecta will be needed.

Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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