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Surgical Treatment of Main Thoracic Scoliosis with Thoracoscopic Anterior InstrumentationA Five-Year Follow-up Study
Peter O. Newton, MD1; Vidyadhar V. Upasani, MD1; Juliano Lhamby, MD2; Valerie L. Ugrinow, BA1; Jeff B. Pawelek, BS1; Tracey P. Bastrom, MA1
1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rady Children's Hospital and Health Center, 3030 Children's Way, Suite 410, San Diego, CA 92123. E-mail address for P.O. Newton: pnewton@rchsd.org
2 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital Santa Rita, Rua Amando Franco Soares Caiubi 250 Apt 122b, Bairro-Morumbi CEP 05640-020, Sao Paulo, Brazil
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Disclosure: In support of their research for or preparation of this work, one or more of the authors received, in any one year, outside funding or grants of less than $10,000 from the Children's Specialists Foundation. In addition, one or more of the authors or a member of his or her immediate family received, in any one year, payments or other benefits in excess of $10,000 or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity (DePuy Spine). No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at Rady Children's Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, California

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2008 Oct 01;90(10):2077-2089. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.G.01315
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Background: The surgical outcomes in patients with scoliosis at two years following anterior thoracoscopic spinal in-strumentation and fusion have been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results at five years.

Methods: A consecutive series of forty-one patients with major thoracic scoliosis treated with anterior thoracoscopic spinal instrumentation was evaluated at regular intervals. Prospectively collected data included patient demographics, radiographic measurements, clinical deformity measures, pulmonary function, an assessment of intervertebral fusion, and the scores on the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-24) outcomes instrument. Perioperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Patient data for the preoperative, two-year, and five-year postoperative time points were compared. In addition, a univariate analysis compared selected two-year radiographic, pulmonary function, and SRS-24 data of the study cohort and those of the patients lost to follow-up.

Results: Twenty-five (61%) of the original forty-one patients had five-year follow-up data and were included in the analysis. Between the two-year and five-year follow-up visits, no significant changes were observed with regard to the average percent correction of the major Cobb angle (56% ± 11% and 52% ± 14%, respectively), average total lung capacity as a percent of the predicted value (95% ± 14% and 91% ± 10%), and the average total SRS-24 score (4.2 ± 0.4 and 4.1 ± 0.7). Radiographic evaluation of intervertebral fusion at five years revealed convincing evidence of a fusion with remodeling and trabeculae present at 151 (97%) of the 155 instrumented motion segments. No postoperative infections or clinically relevant neurovascular complications were observed. Rod failure occurred in three patients, and three patients required a surgical revision with posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion.

Conclusions: Thoracoscopic anterior instrumentation for main thoracic idiopathic scoliosis results in five-year outcomes comparable with those reported previously for open anterior and posterior techniques. The radiographic findings, pulmonary function, and clinical measures remain stable between the two and five-year follow-up time points. Thoracoscopic instrumentation provides a viable alternative to treat spinal deformity; however, the risks of pseudarthrosis, hardware failure, and surgical revision should be considered along with the advantages of limited muscular dissection and improved scar appearance.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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