Ethics in Practice   |    
Ethical Dilemmas in Orthopaedic Surgical Training
Graeme Holt, MBChB, MRCS1; Tom Nunn, MBChB, MRCS1; Alberto Gregori, MBChB, FRCS(Tr&Orth)1
1 Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Hairmyres Hospital, Eaglesham Road, East Kilbride G75 8RG, United Kingdom. E-mail address for G. Holt: graemeholt@btinternet.com
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. A commercial entity (B. Braun Aesculap, United Kingdom) paid or directed in any one year, or agreed to pay or direct, benefits in excess of $10,000 to a research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which one or more of the authors, or a member of his or her immediate family, is affiliated or associated.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2008 Dec 01;90(12):2798-2803. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.H.00910
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The involvement of surgical trainees in surgical procedures forms an integral part of traditional orthopaedic surgical education. While the need to train surgeons is unquestioned, a patient may not necessarily benefit from receiving treatment from an inexperienced surgeon and, indeed, may suffer a poorer outcome as a consequence1-7. As such, the process of orthopaedic surgical training is one that highlights a number of important ethical issues. While the ethical implications of clinical research have been the subject of extensive discussion and guideline development, the ethics of surgical training has received comparatively little attention8-10. Both clinical research and surgical training are analogous in that each involves participation in a process that, while potentially benefiting society as a whole, may result in harm to the individual. In this paper, we discuss the ethical issues that are salient to orthopaedic surgical training and examine how recent technological innovations may offer a potential solution to such issues.
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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