Peroneal tendon disorders are rare, are frequently missed, and can be a source of lateral ankle pain.
Magnetic resonance imaging is the standard method of radiographic evaluation of peroneal tendon disorders; however, diagnosis and treatment are based primarily on the history and physical examination.
Peroneal tenosynovitis typically responds to conservative therapy, and operative treatment is reserved for refractory cases.
Operative treatment is frequently required for peroneal tendon subluxation and consists of anatomic repair or reconstruction of the superior peroneal retinaculum with or without deepening of the retromalleolar groove.
Operative treatment of peroneal tendon tears is based on the amount of remaining viable tendon. Primary repair and tubularization is indicated for tears involving <50% of the tendon, and tenodesis is indicated for tears involving >50% of the tendon.