Finding novel interventions to treat patients in the early stages of disease through improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of musculoskeletal disorders has been a focus of orthopaedic research. Over the past twelve months, important advances have been made in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and degenerative disc disease; furthermore, molecular pathways that could lead to regenerative therapies have been identified. Although it may take some time before these findings translate to clinical innovation, new and improved implants for end-stage joint degeneration are continually being optimized and analyzed. When taken together, it is clear that a continuum of care for patients with musculoskeletal problems is beginning to emerge. To highlight this continuum, here we present some of the more important findings across the spectrum of understanding and treatment of musculoskeletal disease. In particular, we summarize specific work as presented at the recent meetings of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), the Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS), and the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research as well as at the International Meeting on Gene Therapy of Arthritis and Related Disorders.