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Current Concepts Review   |    
Injuries to the Medial Collateral Ligament and Associated Medial Structures of the Knee
Coen A. Wijdicks, PhD1; Chad J. Griffith, MD2; Steinar Johansen, MD3; Lars Engebretsen, MD, PhD3; Robert F. LaPrade, MD, PhD4
1 Steadman Philippon Research Institute, 181 West Meadow Drive, Suite 1000, Vail, CO 81657
2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, 2450 Riverside Avenue, R-200, Minneapolis, MN 55454
3 Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Kirkeveien 166, N-0407 Oslo, Norway
4 The Steadman Clinic, 181 West Meadow Drive, Suite 400, Vail, CO 81657. E-mail address: drlaprade@sprivail.org
View Disclosures and Other Information
Disclosure: In support of their research for or preparation of this work, one or more of the authors received, in any one year, outside funding or grants in excess of $10,000 from the Research Council of Norway (Grant 175047/D15) and Health East Norway (Grant 10703604). Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity.

Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the Oslo University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Copyright ©2010 American Society for Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2010 May 01;92(5):1266-1280. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.I.01229
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Abstract

The superficial medial collateral ligament and other medial knee stabilizers—i.e., the deep medial collateral ligament and the posterior oblique ligament—are the most commonly injured ligamentous structures of the knee.

The main structures of the medial aspect of the knee are the proximal and distal divisions of the superficial medial collateral ligament, the meniscofemoral and meniscotibial divisions of the deep medial collateral ligament, and the posterior oblique ligament.

Physical examination is the initial method of choice for the diagnosis of medial knee injuries through the application of a valgus load both at full knee extension and between 20° and 30° of knee flexion.

Because nonoperative treatment has a favorable outcome, there is a consensus that it should be the first step in the management of acute isolated grade-III injuries of the medial collateral ligament or such injuries combined with an anterior cruciate ligament tear.

If operative treatment is required, an anatomic repair or reconstruction is recommended.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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