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Revision Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Modified Tibial-Inlay Double-Bundle Technique
Sang Hak Lee, MD1; Young Bok Jung, MD2; Han-Jun Lee, MD3; Ho-Joong Jung, MD3; Seong Hwan Kim, MD3
1 Center for Joint Diseases and Rheumatism, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, 892 Dongnam-ro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul 134-727, South Korea
2 Joint Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyundae General Hospital, 663 Jang hyeon-ri, Jinjeop-eup, Namyangju-si, Gyeonggi-do 472-865, South Korea. E-mail address: jungyb2000@paran.com
3 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, 224-1, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-ku, Seoul 140-757, South Korea
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Investigation performed at Hyundae General Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea



Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. None of the authors, or their institution(s), have had any financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with any entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. Also, no author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Mar 21;94(6):516-522. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.00030
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Abstract

Background: 

Revision of an unsuccessful posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction is a complicated clinical procedure with an outcome that may be less satisfactory than that after a typical primary PCL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasons for failure of primary PCL reconstructions and to determine the clinical outcomes of revision PCL reconstruction after a minimum of two years of follow-up.

Methods: 

Twenty-eight revision PCL reconstructions were performed by a single surgeon. Four cases that involved diverse operative procedures and two cases with a duration of follow-up of less than twenty-four months were excluded; the outcomes of the remaining twenty-two reconstructions were analyzed at the time of the latest follow-up (at least twenty-four months postoperatively). A technique involving a double femoral tunnel, a modified tibial inlay, and Achilles tendon allograft was used in all twenty-two of these revision reconstructions. Seventeen patients (77%) underwent concomitant reconstruction of posterolateral corner structures. Knee stability was measured with use of posterior stress radiography as well as with a maximum manual displacement test utilizing a KT1000 arthrometer. The subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and objective Orthopädische Arbeitsgruppe Knie (OAK) scoring systems were used to evaluate the clinical outcome.

Results: 

Nine (41%) of the primary PCL reconstructions most likely failed because of a single factor and thirteen (59%) most likely failed because of multiple factors. The most common probable causes of failure were posterolateral rotatory instability (seventeen knees, 77%) and improper graft tunnel placement (nine knees, 41%). Side-to-side differences during posterior stress radiography improved from 9.9 ± 2.8 mm preoperatively to 2.8 ± 1.8 mm at the time of the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). The subjective and objective clinical scores at the latest follow-up evaluation were significantly better than the preoperative scores (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: 

Arthroscopic revision PCL reconstruction with use of the modified tibial-inlay double-bundle technique improved knee stability, as measured with posterior stress radiography and clinically, and outcomes. Associated posterolateral rotatory instability should be surgically corrected during PCL reconstruction to prevent graft failure resulting from abnormal opening of the lateral aspect of the tibiofemoral joint.

Level of Evidence: 

Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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