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Scientific Articles   |    
Patient-Related Risk Factors for Periprosthetic Joint Infection and Postoperative Mortality Following Total Hip Arthroplasty in Medicare Patients
Kevin J. Bozic, MD, MBA1; Edmund Lau, MS2; Steven Kurtz, PhD3; Kevin Ong, PhD3; Harry Rubash, MD4; Thomas P. Vail, MD1; Daniel J. Berry, MD5
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California San Francisco, 500 Parnassus, MU 320W, San Francisco, CA 94143-0728. E-mail address for K.J. Bozic: kevin.bozic@ucsf.edu
2 Exponent, Inc., 149 Commonwealth Drive, Menlo Park, CA 94025
3 Exponent, Inc., 3401 Market Street, Suite 300, Philadelphia, PA 19104
4 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital Yawkey Center for Outpatient Care, 55 Fruit Street, Suite 3700, Boston, MA 02114
5 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S.W., Rochester, MN 55905
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  • Disclosure statement for author(s): PDF

Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, and Exponent, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania



Disclosure: One or more of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of an aspect of this work. In addition, one or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 May 02;94(9):794-800. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.00072
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Abstract

Background: 

The patient-related risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection and postoperative mortality in elderly patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the specific patient comorbidities that are associated with an increased risk of periprosthetic joint infection and of ninety-day postoperative mortality in U.S. Medicare patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.

Methods: 

The Medicare 5% sample claims database was used to calculate the relative risk of periprosthetic joint infection and of ninety-day postoperative mortality as a function of preexisting comorbidities in 40,919 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty between 1998 and 2007. The impact of twenty-nine comorbid conditions on periprosthetic joint infection and on postoperative mortality was examined with use of Cox regression, controlling for age, sex, census region, public assistance, and all other baseline comorbidities. The adjusted hazard ratios for all comorbid conditions were evaluated, and the Wald chi-square statistic was used to rank the degree of association of each condition with periprosthetic joint infection and with postoperative mortality. The Bonferroni-Holm method was used to adjust for the multiple comparisons resulting from the number of comorbid conditions analyzed.

Results: 

Comorbid conditions associated with an increased adjusted risk of periprosthetic joint infection (in decreasing order of significance, p < 0.05 for all comparisons) were rheumatologic disease (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.71), obesity (HR = 1.73), coagulopathy (HR = 1.58), and preoperative anemia (HR = 1.36). Comorbid conditions associated with an increased adjusted risk of ninety-day postoperative mortality (in decreasing order of significance, p < 0.05 for all comparisons) were congestive heart failure (HR = 2.11), metastatic cancer (HR = 3.14), psychosis (HR = 1.85), renal disease (HR = 1.98), dementia (HR = 2.04), hemiplegia or paraplegia (HR = 2.62), cerebrovascular disease (HR = 1.40), and chronic pulmonary disease (HR = 1.32).

Conclusions: 

We identified specific patient comorbidities that were independently associated with an increased risk of periprosthetic joint infection and of ninety-day postoperative mortality in Medicare patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. This information is important when counseling elderly patients regarding the risks of periprosthetic joint infection and mortality following total hip arthroplasty, as well as for risk adjustment of publicly reported total hip arthroplasty outcomes.

Level of Evidence: 

Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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