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Scientific Articles   |    
Relationship of Hyperglycemia and Surgical-Site Infection in Orthopaedic Surgery
Justin E. Richards, MD; Rondi M. Kauffmann, MD, MPH; Scott L. Zuckerman, BS; William T. Obremskey, MD, MPH; Addison K. May, MD
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Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. One or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. Also, one or more of the authors has had another relationship, or has engaged in another activity, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

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Division of Orthopaedic Trauma, Vanderbilt Orthopaedic Institute, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Medical Center East-South Tower, Suite 4200, Nashville, TN 37232
Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1211 21st Avenue South, 404 MAB, Nashville, TN 37212
Investigation performed at the Division of Orthopaedic Trauma, Vanderbilt Orthopaedic Institute; Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; and Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee
A commentary by Kevin L. Garvin, MD, is linked to the online version of this article at jbjs.org.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Jul 03;94(13):1181-1186. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.00193
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Abstract

Background: 

The impact of perioperative hyperglycemia in orthopaedic surgery is not well defined. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for thirty-day surgical-site infection in orthopaedic trauma patients without a history of diabetes at hospital admission.

Methods: 

Patients eighteen years of age or older with isolated orthopaedic injuries requiring acute operative intervention were studied. Patients with diabetes, injuries to other body systems, a history of corticosteroid use, or admission to the intensive care unit were excluded. Blood glucose values were obtained, and hyperglycemia was defined in two ways. First, patients with two or more blood glucose levels of ≥200 mg/dL were identified. Second, the hyperglycemic index, a validated measure of overall glucose control during hospitalization, was calculated for each patient. A hyperglycemic index of ≥1.76 (equivalent to ≥140 mg/dL) was considered to indicate hyperglycemia. The primary outcome was thirty-day surgical-site infection. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluating the effect of the markers of hyperglycemia, after controlling for open fractures, were constructed.

Results: 

Seven hundred and ninety patients were identified. There were 268 open fractures (33.9%). Twenty-one thirty-day surgical-site infections (2.7%) were recorded. Age, race, comorbidities, injury severity, and blood transfusion were not associated with the primary outcome. Of the 790 patients, 294 (37.2%) had more than one glucose value of ≥200 mg/dL. This factor was associated with thirty-day surgical-site infection, with thirteen (4.4%) of the 294 patients with that indication of hyperglycemia having a surgical-site infection versus eight (1.6%) of the 496 patients without more than one glucose value of ≥200 mg/dL (p = 0.02). One hundred and thirty-four (17.0%) of the 790 patients had a hyperglycemic index of ≥1.76, and this was also associated was thirty-day surgical-site infection (ten [7.5%] of 134 versus eleven [1.7%] of 656; p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression models demonstrated that two or more blood glucose levels of ≥200 mg/dL was a risk factor for thirty-day surgical-site infection (odds ratio [OR]: 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1 to 6.7) after adjustment for open fractures (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.3 to 7.8). A second model demonstrated that a hyperglycemic index of ≥1.76 was an independent risk factor for surgical-site infection (OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 2.0 to 11.8) after controlling for open fractures (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4 to 8.3).

Conclusions: 

Hyperglycemia was an independent risk factor for thirty-day surgical-site infection in orthopaedic trauma patients without a history of diabetes.

Level of Evidence: 

Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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