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Management of Periprosthetic Joint Infection: The Current KnowledgeAAOS Exhibit Selection
Javad Parvizi, MD, FRCS1; Bahar Adeli, BA1; Benjamin Zmistowski, BS1; Camilo Restrepo, MD1; Alan Seth Greenwald, DPhil(Oxon)2
1 The Rothman Institute of Orthopedics at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 925 Chestnut Street, 5th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19107. E-mail address for J. Parvizi: Parvj@aol.com
2 Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, 2310 Superior Avenue East, Cleveland, OH 44114
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Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. One or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

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Investigation performed at the Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Jul 18;94(14):e104 1-9. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.01417
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Abstract

Periprosthetic joint infection continues to frustrate the medical community. Although the demand for total joint arthroplasty is increasing, the burden of such infections is increasing even more rapidly, and they pose a unique challenge because their accurate diagnosis and eradication can prove elusive. This review describes the current knowledge regarding diagnosis and treatment of periprosthetic joint infection. A number of tools are available to aid in establishing a diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. These include the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein concentration, synovial white blood-cell count and differential, imaging studies, tissue specimen culturing, and histological analysis. Multiple definitions of periprosthetic joint infection have been proposed but there is no consensus. Tools under investigation to diagnose such infections include the C-reactive protein concentration in the joint fluid, point-of-care strip tests for the leukocyte esterase concentration in the joint fluid, and other molecular markers of periprosthetic joint infection. Treatment options include irrigation and debridement with prosthesis retention, one-stage prosthesis exchange, two-stage prosthesis exchange with intervening placement of an antibiotic-loaded spacer, and salvage treatments such as joint arthrodesis and amputation. Treatment selection is dependent on multiple factors including the timing of the symptom onset, patient health, the infecting organism, and a history of infection in the joint. Although prosthesis retention has the theoretical advantages of decreased morbidity and improved return to function, two-stage exchange provides a lower rate of recurrent infection. As the burden of periprosthetic joint infection increases, the orthopaedic and medical community should become more familiar with the disease. It is hoped that the tools currently under investigation will aid clinicians in diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection in an accurate and timely fashion to allow appropriate treatment. Given the current knowledge and planned future research, the medical community should be prepared to effectively manage this increasingly prevalent disease.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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