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A Radioisotopic Investigation of the Contamination of Screws and Tissues by Screwdrivers A Study in Applied Metallurgy
P. G. Laing; Laverne R. Madancy; Mary A. Grebner
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Orthopaedic Department and Addison Gibson Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh
1959 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 1959 Apr 01;41(3):535-545
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1. Radioisotopic techniques were used to assess the amount of contamination of orthopaedic screws by screwdrivers. Drivers made of five alloys were tested on screws made of four metals.

2. Two factors were found to be involved in this contamination: metallic transfer, and flaking of large pieces of the tip of the screwdriver by tire cutting action of the screw slot against the driver.

3. Quantitative results show much variation and do not allow definite conclusions. However, we tentatively suggest that, of the screwdrivers tested, an AISI 420 stainless-steel screwdriver seems slightly preferable to others in handling AISI 316 and titanium screws; cobalt-chromium-nickel-tungsten drivers might prove useful in handling cobalt-chromium-molybdenum serews. Further research, especially with the goal of decreasing metallic transfer by lubrication, is needed.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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