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Shoulder Arthroscopy Simulator Performance Correlates with Resident and Shoulder Arthroscopy Experience
Kevin D. Martin, DO1; Kenneth Cameron, PhD, MPH, ATC2; Philip J. Belmont, Jr., MD1; Andrew Schoenfeld, MD1; Brett D. Owens, MD2
1 William Beaumont Army Medical Center, 5005 North Piedras Street, El Paso, TX 79920
2 Keller Army Hospital, 900 Washington Road, West Point, NY 10996
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Disclaimer: All of the authors of this manuscript are members of the United States military and/or employees of the U.S. government. The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the United States government.



Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. One or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Nov 07;94(21):e160 1-5. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.00072
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Abstract

Background: 

The technical skills required to perform arthroscopy are multifaceted and require supervised training and repetition. Obtaining this basic arthroscopic skill set can be costly and time-consuming. Simulation may represent a viable training source for basic arthroscopic skills. Our goal was to evaluate the correlation between timed task performance on an arthroscopic shoulder simulator and both resident experience and shoulder arthroscopy experience.

Methods: 

Twenty-seven residents were voluntarily recruited from an orthopaedic residency program. Each subject was tested annually for three consecutive years on an arthroscopic shoulder simulator and objectively scored on time to completion of a standardized object localization task. Each subject’s total number of shoulder arthroscopies, all arthroscopies, and cases were calculated according to postgraduate year from their Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case log. Generalized estimating equation multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between simulation performance and total numbers of shoulder arthroscopies, all arthroscopies, and cases.

Results: 

Univariate analyses revealed that postgraduate year, total number of shoulder arthroscopies, total number of arthroscopies of any joint, and total number of surgical cases performed during residency training prior to testing were associated with the mean time required to complete the simulator task. The number of prior shoulder arthroscopies performed (r = 0.55) and postgraduate year in training (r = 0.60) correlated most strongly with simulator basic task performance. In the multivariate analysis, the number of prior shoulder arthroscopies and postgraduate year remained independent predictors of faster completion of the simulator task. For every additional postgraduate year, there was a sixteen-second improvement in the time required to complete the simulator task (p < 0.005). Similarly, after controlling for the influence of postgraduate year, there was a twelve-second decrease in the time to complete the simulator task for every additional fifty shoulder arthroscopies performed during residency training (p < 0.008).

Conclusions: 

These results showed a significant relationship between performance of basic arthroscopic tasks in a simulator model and the number of shoulder arthroscopies performed. The data confirmed our hypothesis that simulator performance is representative of both resident experience and shoulder arthroscopy experience.

Clinical Relevance: 

This study suggests that greater resident clinical experience and shoulder arthroscopy experience are both reflected in improved performance of basic tasks on a shoulder simulator. These findings warrant further investigation to determine if training on a validated arthroscopic shoulder simulator would improve clinical arthroscopic skills.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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