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Prognostic Factors and Limitations of Anatomic Shoulder Arthroplasty for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Cephalic Collapse or Necrosis (Type-1 Proximal Humeral Fracture Sequelae)
Grégory Moineau, MD1; Walter B. McClelland, Jr., MD1; Christophe Trojani, MD, PhD1; Adam Rumian, MD, FRCS1; Gilles Walch, MD1; Pascal Boileau, MD1
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Traumatology, Hôpital de L’Archet, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 151 Route de St. Antoine de Ginestière, 06202 Nice, France. E-mail address for P. Boileau: boileau.p@chu-nice.fr
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Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Traumatology, Hôpital de L’Archet, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France

Disclosure: One or more of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of an aspect of this work. In addition, one or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Dec 05;94(23):2186-2194. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.00412
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors and limitations of anatomic unconstrained shoulder arthroplasty, performed without tuberosity osteotomy, for the treatment of secondary glenohumeral arthritis following posttraumatic cephalic collapse or necrosis of the humeral head, defined as type-1 fracture sequelae.


Fifty-five patients with type-1 fracture sequelae treated with anatomic shoulder arthroplasty were included in this retrospective single-center cohort study. All anatomic humeral prostheses were implanted without performing a greater tuberosity osteotomy. Glenoid resurfacing was performed in forty-four patients (80%). Clinical and radiographic analysis was performed at a mean of fifty-two months (range, twenty-four to 180 months) postoperatively.


Four reoperations (7%) were performed, including two revisions in patients who required glenoid resurfacing because of glenoid erosion after hemiarthroplasty. At the time of the latest follow-up, 93% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied, and the mean Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV) was 81%. There were significant improvements in the mean Constant score (from 32 to 69 points), active anterior elevation (from 88° to 141°), external rotation (from 6° to 34°), and internal rotation (from the buttock to L3). Significantly poorer results were associated with proximal humeral deformity in varus and with fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles. Patients with proximal humeral deformity, specifically varus or valgus malunion of the greater tuberosity, had a mean Constant score that was 10 points lower and active elevation that was almost 20° less than patients with no such deformity. The poorest results were observed in patients with varus malunion.


Our study confirmed that the outcomes of anatomic shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of type-1 fracture sequelae are good and predictable when deformation of the proximal humerus is acceptable(i.e., when no greater tuberosity osteotomy is necessary). The results were negatively affected by proximal humeral varus deformity and by fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff on imaging studies. In such cases, reverse shoulder arthroplasty may be more appropriate, especially in elderly patients.

Level of Evidence: 

Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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