Ultraporous β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) synthetic graft material (Vitoss; Orthovita) persists for a year or longer in some cases. In this study, we prospectively examined healing of cavitary defects filled with TCP versus TCP and bone marrow aspirate (TCP/BM) with the hypothesis that bone-marrow aspirate speeds incorporation of bone graft substitute.Methods:
Fifty-five patients with a benign bone lesion undergoing surgical curettage were randomized to receive TCP (N = 26; mean duration of follow-up [and standard deviation], 20.2 ± 7.2 months) or TCP/BM (N = 29; mean duration of follow-up, 18.0 ± 7.7 months). There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to demographic or defect parameters. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were done at 1.5, three, six, twelve, eighteen, and twenty-four months, and computed tomography [CT] scans were performed at twelve months. An independent radiographic review was done to evaluate six parameters.Results:
There was a significant (p < 0.001) increase in trabeculation through the defect and graft resorption with decreases in the persistence of the graft in both soft tissue and the defect as well as a decreased radiolucent rim around the graft over time. No significant differences were observed between the TCP and TCP/BM groups in terms of any radiographic parameter. No complications related to the graft material or BM were identified.Conclusions:
While significant improvements in radiographic parameters were observed in both TCP groups over two years of follow-up, the addition of BM was not found to provide any significant benefit. Results should not be extrapolated to other bone graft substitutes used for this purpose.Level of Evidence:
Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.