0
Scientific Articles   |    
Risk Factors for Deep Surgical Site Infection Following Operative Treatment of Ankle Fractures
Mikko T. Ovaska, MD1; Tatu J. Mäkinen, MD, PhD1; Rami Madanat, MD, PhD1; Kaisa Huotari, MD, PhD2; Tero Vahlberg, MSc3; Eero Hirvensalo, MD, PhD1; Jan Lindahl, MD1
1 Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Topeliuksenkatu 5, 00260 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail address for M.T. Ovaska: mikko.ovaska@hus.fi
2 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Peijas Hospital, Sairaalakatu 1, 01400 Vantaa, Finland
3 Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Lemminkäisenkatu 1, 20014 Turku, Finland
View Disclosures and Other Information
  • Disclosure statement for author(s): PDF

Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland



Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. One or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2013 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2013 Feb 20;95(4):348-353. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.01672
5 Recommendations (Recommend) | 3 Comments | Saved by 3 Users Save Case

Abstract

Background: 

Surgical site infection is one of the most common complications following ankle fracture surgery. These infections are associated with substantial morbidity and lead to increased resource utilization. Identification of risk factors is crucial for developing strategies to prevent these complications.

Methods: 

We performed an age and sex-matched case-control study to identify patient and surgery-related risk factors for deep surgical site infection following operative ankle fracture treatment. We identified 1923 ankle fracture operations performed in 1915 patients from 2006 through 2009. A total of 131 patients with deep infection were identified and compared with an equal number of uninfected control patients. Risk factors for infection were determined with use of conditional logistic regression analysis.

Results: 

The incidence of deep infection was 6.8%. Univariate analysis showed diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 4.9), alcohol abuse (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 9.4), fracture-dislocation (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.5), and soft-tissue injury (a Tscherne grade of ≥1) (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3, 5.3) to be significant patient-related risk factors for infection. Surgery-related risk factors were suboptimal timing of prophylactic antibiotics (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.4), difficulties encountered during surgery, (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 4.0), wound complications (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 14.0), and fracture malreduction (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.3, 9.2). Independent risk factors for infection identified by multivariable analyses were tobacco use (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.6, 8.5) and a duration of surgery of more than ninety minutes (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 5.7). Cast application in the operating room was independently associated with a decreased infection rate (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2, 0.8).

Conclusions: 

We identified several modifiable risk factors for deep surgical site infection following operative treatment of ankle fractures.

Level of Evidence: 

Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Figures in this Article
    Sign In to Your Personal ProfileSign In To Access Full Content
    Not a Subscriber?
    Get online access for 30 days for $35
    New to JBJS?
    Sign up for a full subscription to both the print and online editions
    Register for a FREE limited account to get full access to all CME activities, to comment on public articles, or to sign up for alerts.
    Register for a FREE limited account to get full access to all CME activities
    Have a subscription to the print edition?
    Current subscribers to The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery in either the print or quarterly DVD formats receive free online access to JBJS.org.
    Forgot your password?
    Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.

     
    Forgot your username or need assistance? Please contact customer service at subs@jbjs.org. If your access is provided
    by your institution, please contact you librarian or administrator for username and password information. Institutional
    administrators, to reset your institution's master username or password, please contact subs@jbjs.org

    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
    CME Activities Associated with This Article
    Submit a Comment
    Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
    Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discretion of JBJS editorial staff.

    * = Required Field
    (if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
    Example: John Doe





    Related Content
    The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
    JBJS Case Connector
    Topic Collections
    Related Audio and Videos
    PubMed Articles
    Clinical Trials
    Readers of This Also Read...
    JBJS Jobs
    12/04/2013
    NY - Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
    02/28/2014
    DC - Children's National Medical Center
    03/27/2014
    MA - Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine
    02/19/2014
    OH - University Hospitals Case Medical Center