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The Use of Erythromycin and Colistin-Loaded Cement in Total Knee Arthroplasty Does Not Reduce the Incidence of InfectionA Prospective Randomized Study in 3000 Knees
Pedro Hinarejos, MD, PhD1; Pau Guirro, MD1; Joan Leal, MD, PhD1; Ferran Montserrat, MD1; Xavier Pelfort, MD1; M.L. Sorli, MD1; J.P. Horcajada, MD, PhD1; Lluis Puig, MD, PhD1
1 Departments of Orthopedic Surgery (P.H., P.G., J.L., F.M., X.P., and L.P.) and Infectious Diseases (M.L.S. and J.P.H.), Parc de Salut Mar, Universitat Autònoma Barcelona, Hospital de la Esperanza, Sant Josep de la Muntanya, 12, 08024 Barcelona, Spain. E-mail address for P. Hinarejos: Phinarejos@parcdesalutmar.cat
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Investigation performed at the Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Infectious Diseases, Parc de Salut Mar, Universitat Autònoma Barcelona, Hospital de la Esperanza, Barcelona, Spain

A commentary by Donald W. Roberts, MD, is linked to the online version of this article at jbjs.org.



Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. None of the authors, or their institution(s), have had any financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with any entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. Also, no author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2013 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2013 May 01;95(9):769-774. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.00901
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Abstract

Background: 

The use of antibiotic-loaded cement is believed to prevent infection in primary total knee arthroplasty, but there is a lack of randomized studies to support this concept. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an antibiotic-loaded cement to reduce the infection rate in primary total knee arthroplasty.

Methods: 

This is a prospective randomized study with 2948 cemented total knee arthroplasties, in which bone cement without antibiotic was used in 1465 knees (the control group) and a bone cement loaded with erythromycin and colistin was used in 1483 knees (the study group). All patients received the same systemic prophylactic antibiotics. The patients were followed for a minimum of twelve months. The rate of infection was analyzed according to the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Results: 

The rate of deep infection (1.4% in the control group and 1.35% in the study group; p = 0.96) and the rate of superficial infection (1.2% and 1.8%, respectively; p = 0.53) were similar in both groups. The factors related to a higher rate of deep infection in a multivariate analysis were male sex and an operating time of >125 minutes.

Conclusions: 

The use of erythromycin and colistin-loaded bone cement in total knee arthroplasty did not lead to a decrease in the rate of infection when systemic prophylactic antibiotics were used, a finding that suggests that the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement would not be indicated in the general population. Further research is needed to assess whether its use is recommended for patients with a higher risk of infection.

Level of Evidence: 

Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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