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Comorbidities and Perioperative Complications in HIV-Positive Patients Undergoing Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty
Carol A. Lin, MD, MA1; Alfred C. Kuo, MD, PhD1; Steven Takemoto, PhD1
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California San Francisco, 500 Parnassus Avenue, MUW 320, San Francisco, CA 94143. E-mail address for S. Takemoto: Steven.Takemoto@va.gov
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Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California

Disclosure: One or more of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of an aspect of this work. None of the authors, or their institution(s), have had any financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with any entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. Also, no author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2013 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2013 Jun 05;95(11):1028-1036. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.00269
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy has prolonged the lifespan of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We hypothesized that the number of primary total joint arthroplasties performed in this population has been increasing and that HIV infection is not an independent risk factor for postoperative complications.


The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2000 through 2008 was queried to identify patients who underwent primary total joint arthroplasty. HIV, comorbidities, and complications were identified with use of ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification) codes. Data were analyzed with use of multivariate logistic regression, the Pearson chi-square test, and the Mann-Kendall trend test.


Of the estimated 5,681,024 admissions for primary total hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States during this period, 8229 (0.14%) were in patients who had HIV. Compared with HIV-negative patients (controls), infected patients were more likely to be younger, be male, and have a history of osteonecrosis, liver disease, drug use, and coagulopathy. The number of total hip and total knee arthroplasties in HIV-positive patients increased from 2000 to 2008 (p < 0.05). Seventy-nine percent (6499) of the total joint arthroplasties in the HIV-positive patients involved the hip. Compared with HIV-negative patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, HIV-positive patients were more likely to develop acute renal failure (1.3% compared with 0.8%, p = 0.04), develop a wound infection (0.6% compared with 0.3%, p = 0.02), and undergo postoperative irrigation and debridement (0.2% compared with 0.1%, p = 0.01). They were less likely to have a myocardial infarction (0.4% compared with 0.9%, p = 0.04). There was no difference in total complications (8.3% compared with 7.8%, p = 0.52). Similarly, there was no difference in total complications in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (7.8% compared with 8.0%, p = 0.76). HIV was not an independent risk factor for complications in total hip arthroplasty (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.47) or total knee arthroplasty (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.49 to 1.25).


The incidence of primary total joint arthroplasty in HIV-positive patients has been increasing. These patients were at slightly higher risk of certain immediate postoperative complications because of a higher rate of medical comorbidities. HIV infection was not an independent risk factor for the total rate of perioperative complications.

Level of Evidence: 

Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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