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A Simulation Trainer for Complex Articular Fracture Surgery
Tameem M. Yehyawi, MD1; Thaddeus P. Thomas, PhD1; Gary T. Ohrt, BS1; J. Lawrence Marsh, MD1; Matthew D. Karam, MD1; Thomas D. Brown, PhD1; Donald D. Anderson, PhD1
1 Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, 01008 JPP, Iowa City, IA 52242. E-mail address for T.M. Yehyawi: tameem-yehyawi@uiowa.edu
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Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa



Disclosure: One or more of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of an aspect of this work. In addition, one or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2013 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2013 Jul 03;95(13):e92 1-8. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.00554
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Abstract

Background: 

The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a physical model to improve articular fracture reduction skills, (2) to develop objective assessment methods to evaluate these skills, and (3) to assess the construct validity of the simulation.

Methods: 

A surgical simulation was staged utilizing surrogate tibial plafond fractures. Multiple three-segment radio-opacified polyurethane foam fracture models were produced from the same mold, ensuring uniform surgical complexity between trials. Using fluoroscopic guidance, five senior and seven junior orthopaedic residents reduced the fracture through a limited anterior window. The residents were assessed on the basis of time to completion, hand movements (tracked with use of a motion capture system), and quality of the obtained reduction.

Results: 

All but three of the residents successfully reduced and fixed the fracture fragments (one senior resident and two junior residents completed the reduction but were unsuccessful in fixating all fragments). Senior residents had an average time to completion of 13.43 minutes, an average gross articular step-off of 3.00 mm, discrete hand motions of 540 actions, and a cumulative hand motion distance of 79 m. Junior residents had an average time to completion of 14.75 minutes, an average gross articular step-off of 3.09 mm, discrete hand motions of 511 actions, and a cumulative hand motion distance of 390 m.

Conclusions: 

The large difference in cumulative hand motion distance, despite comparable numbers of discrete hand motion events, indicates that senior residents were more precise in their hand motions. The present experiment establishes the basic construct validity of the simulation trainer. Further studies are required to demonstrate that this laboratory-based model for articular fracture reduction training, along with an objective assessment of performance, can be used to improve resident surgical skills.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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