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Scientific Articles   |    
Anti-Glucosaminidase IgG in Sera as a Biomarker of Host Immunity Against Staphylococcus aureus in Orthopaedic Surgery Patients
Nina Gedbjerg1; Rachel LaRosa1; Joshua G. Hunter, MD1; John J. Varrone, MS1; Stephen L. Kates, MD1; Edward M. Schwarz, PhD1; John L. Daiss, PhD1
1 Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 665, Rochester, NY 14642. E-mail address for E.M. Schwarz: Edward Schwarz@URMC.Rochester.edu
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Investigation performed at the Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York



Disclosure: One or more of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of an aspect of this work. In addition, one or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. Also, one or more of the authors has had another relationship, or has engaged in another activity, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2013 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2013 Nov 20;95(22):e171 1-9. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.01654
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Abstract

Background: 

Staphylococcus aureus infections remain a major complication of orthopaedic surgery. Although serum C-reactive protein is useful for diagnosis, there are no specific tests for host immunity that can assess a patient’s risk for serious infection. On the basis of the identification of glucosaminidase as a potentially protective antigen in animal models, we tested the hypotheses that anti-glucosaminidase IgG (immunoglobulin G) levels vary in sera of mice and orthopaedic patients with Staphylococcus aureus infections and that physical and neutralizing titers correlate.

Methods: 

In vitro ELISAs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) were developed to quantify binding (physical) and enzyme-neutralizing (functional) anti-glucosaminidase IgG titers. The assays were validated with use of sera from naive, Staphylococcus aureus-challenged, and glucosaminidase-immunized mice. The physical, functional, and isotype titers of anti-glucosaminidase IgG were measured in sera from twenty-four patients with a confirmed Staphylococcus aureus infection following orthopaedic surgery and in sera from twenty noninfected patients. The specificity of the anti-glucosaminidase assay was evaluated by means of linear regression and receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis.

Results: 

In mice, the analytic range of the physical titer assay for anti-glucosaminidase IgG was determined to be 1 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL, and physical titers correlated with functional titers (p < 0.002). Although all patients had measurable anti-glucosaminidase IgG, the physical titers in the infected patients were significantly higher by a factor of two compared with those in the healthy controls (p = 0.015). The physical titers were significantly correlated with the functional titers (p < 0.0001). Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis demonstrated a diagnostic specificity of 0.72 (p = 0.014) for the assay. The anti-glucosaminidase titer in almost every patient was dominated by the IgG1 isotype.

Conclusions: 

Humoral immunity against glucosaminidase varied in mammals with Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. Anti-glucosaminidase titers in sera were a potential biomarker of infection and have the potential to assess the quality of host immunity against Staphylococcus aureus.

Clinical Relevance: 

Staphylococcus aureus infections can be challenging to diagnose, and there is no diagnostic test for host immunity. We demonstrated a cost-effective assay for determining the anti-glucosaminidase titer, which can be readily combined with conventional serology to improve diagnosis and to assess host immunity against Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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