With a clinical goniometer, we measured the arcs of active motion of the
shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, hip, knee, ankle, and foot in 109 normal
male subjects ranging in age from eighteen months to fifty-four years old.
The normal limits were determined for subjects who were one to nineteen
years old and for those who were twenty to fifty-four years old.
Significant differences were found between the two age groups for most
motions. The data were compared with estimations in the handbook of The
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons as the standard reference. The
data constitute a more detailed set of measurements, based on a sample
described according to height and age, than has been available