0
Scientific Articles   |    
Serum Interleukin-6 as a Marker of Periprosthetic Shoulder Infection
Diego Villacis, MD1; Jarrad A. Merriman, MPH1; Raj Yalamanchili, BS1; Reza Omid, MD1; John Itamura, MD2; George F. Rick Hatch, III, MD1
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Keck Hospital of USC, 1500 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033. E-mail address for J.A. Merriman: jarrad.merriman@usc.edu
2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kerlan-Jobe at White Memorial Medical Center, 1700 Cesar E. Chavez Avenue, Suite 1400, Los Angeles, CA 90033
View Disclosures and Other Information
  • Disclosure statement for author(s): PDF

Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Keck Hospital of USC, and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kerlan-Jobe at White Memorial Medical Center, Los Angeles, California

Peer Review: This article was reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief and one Deputy Editor, and it underwent blinded review by two or more outside experts. It was also reviewed by an expert in methodology and statistics. The Deputy Editor reviewed each revision of the article, and it underwent a final review by the Editor-in-Chief prior to publication. Final corrections and clarifications occurred during one or more exchanges between the author(s) and copyeditors.



Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. None of the authors, or their institution(s), have had any financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with any entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. Also, no author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2014 Jan 01;96(1):41-45. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.01634
5 Recommendations (Recommend) | 3 Comments | Saved by 3 Users Save Case

Abstract

Background: 

Infection after shoulder arthroplasty can be a devastating complication, and subacute and chronic low-grade infections have proven difficult to diagnose. Serum marker analyses commonly used to diagnose periprosthetic infection are often inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a marker of periprosthetic shoulder infection.

Methods: 

A prospective cohort study of thirty-four patients who had previously undergone shoulder arthroplasty and required revision surgery was conducted. The serum levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and the white blood-cell count (WBC) were measured. The definitive diagnosis of an infection was determined by growth of bacteria on culture of intraoperative specimens. Two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) tests were used to determine the presence of a significant difference in the ESR and WBC between patients with and those without infection, while the Fisher exact test was used to assess differences in IL-6 and CRP levels between those groups. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of each marker were also calculated.

Results: 

There was no significant difference in the IL-6 level, WBC, ESR, or CRP level between patients with and those without infection. With a normal serum IL-6 level defined as <10 pg/mL, this test had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 0.14, 0.95, 0.67, 0.61, and 0.62, respectively.

Conclusions: 

IL-6 analysis may have utility as a confirmatory test but is not an effective screening tool for periprosthetic shoulder infection. This finding is in contrast to the observation, in previous studies, that IL-6 is more sensitive than traditional serum markers for periprosthetic infection.

Level of Evidence: 

Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Figures in this Article
    Sign In to Your Personal ProfileSign In To Access Full Content
    Not a Subscriber?
    Get online access for 30 days for $35
    New to JBJS?
    Sign up for a full subscription to both the print and online editions
    Register for a FREE limited account to get full access to all CME activities, to comment on public articles, or to sign up for alerts.
    Register for a FREE limited account to get full access to all CME activities
    Have a subscription to the print edition?
    Current subscribers to The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery in either the print or quarterly DVD formats receive free online access to JBJS.org.
    Forgot your password?
    Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.

     
    Forgot your username or need assistance? Please contact customer service at subs@jbjs.org. If your access is provided
    by your institution, please contact you librarian or administrator for username and password information. Institutional
    administrators, to reset your institution's master username or password, please contact subs@jbjs.org

    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
    CME Activities Associated with This Article
    Submit a Comment
    Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
    Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discretion of JBJS editorial staff.

    * = Required Field
    (if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
    Example: John Doe





    Related Content
    The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
    JBJS Case Connector
    Topic Collections
    Related Audio and Videos
    PubMed Articles
    Clinical Trials
    Readers of This Also Read...
    JBJS Jobs
    05/03/2012
    CA - UCLA/OH Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
    12/04/2013
    NY - Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
    02/19/2014
    OH - University Hospitals Case Medical Center