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Scientific Articles   |    
One-Stage Exchange Arthroplasty for Chronic Periprosthetic Hip Infection: Results of a Large Prospective Cohort Study
Valérie Zeller, MD1; Luc Lhotellier, MD1; Simon Marmor, MD1; Philippe Leclerc, MD1; Alysa Krain, MD1; Wilfrid Graff, MD1; Françoise Ducroquet, MD1; David Biau, PhD2; Philippe Leonard, MD1; Nicole Desplaces, MD1; Patrick Mamoudy, MD1
1 Service de Chirurgie Osseuse et Traumatologique, Groupe Hospitalier Diaconesses-Croix Saint-Simon, 125, rue d’Avron, 75020 Paris, France. E-mail address for V. Zeller: vzeller@hopital-dcss.org
2 Département de Biostatistique et Informatique Médicale, Hôpital Saint-Louis, 1, avenue Claude Vellefaux, AP-HP, Paris Université 7, 75475 Paris Cedex 10, France
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Investigation performed at Groupe Hospitalier Diaconesses-Croix Saint-Simon, Paris, France

Peer Review: This article was reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief and one Deputy Editor, and it underwent blinded review by two or more outside experts. It was also reviewed by an expert in methodology and statistics. The Deputy Editor reviewed each revision of the article, and it underwent a final review by the Editor-in-Chief prior to publication. Final corrections and clarifications occurred during one or more exchanges between the author(s) and copyeditors.



Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. One or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2014 Jan 01;96(1):e1 1-9. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.01451
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Abstract

Background: 

Exchange arthroplasty of one or two stages is required for the treatment of chronic periprosthetic joint infections. Two-stage exchange is costly and has high morbidity with limited patient mobility between procedures. One-stage exchange has been promoted by several European teams as the preferred alternative. The aim of this study was to prospectively analyze the outcome of patients with a periprosthetic hip infection treated with one-stage exchange arthroplasty.

Methods: 

We performed a prospective cohort study in a French referral center for osteoarticular infections including all periprosthetic hip infections treated with one-stage exchange arthroplasty from November 2002 to March 2010. Direct exchange was performed in chronic periprosthetic hip infection with no or minor bone loss and preoperative identification of a microorganism from joint fluid aspirate. No antibiotic-loaded bone cement was used. Antibiotic therapy was administered for twelve weeks: intravenously for four to six weeks, followed by an oral regimen for six to eight weeks. Follow-up was a minimum of two years. The following events were noted: relapse, new infection, joint revision for mechanical reasons, and periprosthetic hip infection-related and unrelated deaths.

Results: 

One hundred and fifty-seven patients with periprosthetic hip infections with a median infection duration of 258 days (interquartile range, 120 to 551 days) prior to our index surgical procedure for infection were included. Periprosthetic hip infection occurred in ninety-nine cases of primary hip arthroplasty, twenty-seven cases of revision arthroplasty, and thirty-one cases in which the periprosthetic hip infection had been treated previously. A difficult-to-treat organism was isolated in fifty-nine cases (38%). After a median follow-up of 41.6 months (interquartile range, 28.1 to 66.9 months), two relapses, six new infections, nine revisions for mechanical reasons, two related deaths, and nineteen unrelated deaths occurred.

Conclusions: 

One-stage exchange arthroplasty is an effective surgical procedure in patients with periprosthetic hip infection who have good bone quality. Precise identification of the microorganism(s) and prolonged administration of appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy are key factors for successful treatment.

Level of Evidence: 

Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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