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Scientific Articles   |    
Outcomes and Second-Look Arthroscopic Evaluation After Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Use of a Single Tibial Tunnel
Jin Hwan Ahn, MD1; Sang-Hee Choi, MD1; Joon Ho Wang, MD1; Jae Chul Yoo, MD1; Hyun Seok Yim, MD1; Moon Jong Chang, MD1
1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (J.H.A.), Departments of Orthopedic Surgery(J.H.W., J.C.Y., H.S.Y., and M.J.C.) and Radiology (S.-H.C.), Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea. E-mail address for M.J. Chang: moonjongchang@yahoo.co.kr
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Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. None of the authors, or their institution(s), have had any financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with any entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. Also, no author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

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Investigation performed at the Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
A commentary by Freddie H. Fu, MD, Paulo H. Araujo, MD, and Albert Lin, MD, is linked to the online version of this article at jbjs.org.

Copyright © 2011 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2011 Oct 19;93(20):1865-1872. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.00136
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Abstract

Background: 

The correlation between graft appearance and clinical outcome after double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a major concern. In this study, the graft appearance was assessed with use of second-look arthroscopy and was correlated with the clinical outcome. Overall clinical outcomes after double-bundle ACL reconstruction with use of a single tibial tunnel were analyzed.

Methods: 

Thirty-seven knees that underwent second-look arthroscopy after double-bundle ACL reconstruction and sixty-two knees that underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction without subsequent second-look arthroscopy were included in this retrospective study. The ninety-nine patients enrolled were followed for thirty-five months (range, twenty-four to fifty-eight months), and the mean duration from ACL reconstruction to second-look arthroscopy was twenty-five months (range, twelve to thirty-six months). Graft thickness, apparent graft tension, and synovial coverage were graded during second-look arthroscopy. Correlations were sought between graft appearance and Lysholm knee scores, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) grades, anterior laxity, and pivot-shift test results.

Results: 

Postoperatively, ninety-four (94.9%) of the ninety-nine knees had an IKDC rating of B or higher, mean anterior laxity was 1.29 mm (range, 0 to 6 mm), and ninety-two knees (92.9%) had a negative pivot-shift result. With regard to graft thickness and tension, anteromedial bundles were graded as A in twenty-eight (75.7%) of the thirty-seven second-look knees and as B in nine knees (24.3%). Posterolateral bundles were graded as A in twenty-five knees (67.6%), B in six knees (16.2%), and C in six knees (16.2%). With regard to synovial coverage, anteromedial bundles were graded as C in only two knees (5.4%) and posterolateral bundles were graded as C in six knees (16.2%). No correlation was found between graft appearance and clinical outcome.

Conclusions: 

In the present study, we observed that clinical outcomes were as satisfactory with a single tibial tunnel as with two tibial tunnels. However, more tears and poorer synovial coverage were observed for posterolateral than for anteromedial bundles during second-look arthroscopy. No significant correlation was found between graft appearance and clinical outcome.

Level of Evidence: 

Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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