The correlation between graft appearance and clinical outcome after double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a major concern. In this study, the graft appearance was assessed with use of second-look arthroscopy and was correlated with the clinical outcome. Overall clinical outcomes after double-bundle ACL reconstruction with use of a single tibial tunnel were analyzed.Methods:
Thirty-seven knees that underwent second-look arthroscopy after double-bundle ACL reconstruction and sixty-two knees that underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction without subsequent second-look arthroscopy were included in this retrospective study. The ninety-nine patients enrolled were followed for thirty-five months (range, twenty-four to fifty-eight months), and the mean duration from ACL reconstruction to second-look arthroscopy was twenty-five months (range, twelve to thirty-six months). Graft thickness, apparent graft tension, and synovial coverage were graded during second-look arthroscopy. Correlations were sought between graft appearance and Lysholm knee scores, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) grades, anterior laxity, and pivot-shift test results.Results:
Postoperatively, ninety-four (94.9%) of the ninety-nine knees had an IKDC rating of B or higher, mean anterior laxity was 1.29 mm (range, 0 to 6 mm), and ninety-two knees (92.9%) had a negative pivot-shift result. With regard to graft thickness and tension, anteromedial bundles were graded as A in twenty-eight (75.7%) of the thirty-seven second-look knees and as B in nine knees (24.3%). Posterolateral bundles were graded as A in twenty-five knees (67.6%), B in six knees (16.2%), and C in six knees (16.2%). With regard to synovial coverage, anteromedial bundles were graded as C in only two knees (5.4%) and posterolateral bundles were graded as C in six knees (16.2%). No correlation was found between graft appearance and clinical outcome.Conclusions:
In the present study, we observed that clinical outcomes were as satisfactory with a single tibial tunnel as with two tibial tunnels. However, more tears and poorer synovial coverage were observed for posterolateral than for anteromedial bundles during second-look arthroscopy. No significant correlation was found between graft appearance and clinical outcome.Level of Evidence:
Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.