Over the last year, our understanding of the biological basis of orthopaedic pathology and its treatments has expanded. Particular attention continues to be directed toward the role of stem cells for tissue regeneration as well as the role of growth factors for healing augmentation. Substantial advances have also been made in our understanding of the response of stem cells to load, topography, and growth factors. While bench research is promising, recent clinical studies, specifically, those on the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), haven fallen short of expectations. The exact reasons for the disconnect between promising basic science research and discouraging clinical results is most likely multifactorial, and further research is needed to identify the various factors critical for success.