The number of female orthopaedic residents and orthopaedic surgeons has increased substantially. Concerns have been raised regarding the effect of the work environment on the health of the female orthopaedic surgeon and her fetus or neonate. Occupational risks, and specifically risks to the pregnant orthopaedic surgeon, are becoming an important issue in medicine. Such risks include exposure to methylmethacrylate (MMA), anesthetic gases, blood-borne pathogens, radiation, emotional stress, and physical stress. Awareness of and knowledge about such exposures are needed for the pregnant orthopaedic surgeon to make informed decisions about her occupational exposures and to be proactive about her own and her child's health.