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Scientific Articles   |    
Allogeneic Blood Transfusions and Postoperative Infections After Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty
Richard Friedman, MD, FRCSC1; Martin Homering, MSPH2; Gerlind Holberg, DVM, PhD3; Scott D. Berkowitz, MD4
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston Orthopaedic Associates, 1012 Physicians Drive, Charleston, SC 29414. E-mail address: rjfriedman@mybones.com
2 Bayer Pharma AG, Aprather Weg 18a, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
3 Bayer Pharma AG, Müllerstrasse 178, 13342 Berlin, Germany
4 Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, PO Box 1000, Montville, NJ 07045
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A commentary by Adolph J. Yates Jr., MD, is linked to the online version of this article at jbjs.org.

Peer Review: This article was reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief and one Deputy Editor, and it underwent blinded review by two or more outside experts. It was also reviewed by an expert in methodology and statistics. The Deputy Editor reviewed each revision of the article, and it underwent a final review by the Editor-in-Chief prior to publication. Final corrections and clarifications occurred during one or more exchanges between the author(s) and copyeditors.



Disclosure: One or more of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of an aspect of this work. In addition, one or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2014 Feb 19;96(4):272-278. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.01268
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Abstract

Background: 

Up to 70% of patients who undergo total hip or total knee arthroplasty receive blood transfusions. Using data from more than 12,000 patients assessed in the Phase-III RECORD (Regulation of Coagulation in Orthopedic Surgery to Prevent Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism) studies, we investigated whether allogeneic blood transfusion increases the risk of postoperative infection compared with autologous blood transfusion or no transfusion.

Methods: 

A post hoc analysis of the pooled RECORD data stratified patients into three groups according to the type of blood transfusion that they received: no transfusion (n = 6313), autologous blood transfusion (n = 1902), and allogeneic blood transfusion with or without autologous blood transfusion (n = 3962). The types of postoperative infection were recorded and included lower or upper respiratory tract and lung infection, bone and joint infection, wound inflammation or infection, urinary tract infection, and other infections.

Results: 

The rates of infection in patients receiving no transfusion or autologous blood transfusion were similar; therefore, data from these two groups were combined. The rate of any infection was 9.9% (392 of 3962) in patients receiving allogeneic blood transfusion and 7.9% (646 of 8215) in patients not receiving allogeneic blood transfusion with or without autologous blood transfusion (p = 0.003). The rates of lower or upper respiratory tract and lung infection (2.1% [eighty-five of 3962] versus 1.3% [109 of 8215]; p = 0.002) and of wound inflammation or infection (2.4% [ninety-four of 3962] versus 1.7% [138 of 8215]; p = 0.046) were significantly higher in patients receiving allogeneic blood transfusion compared with patients not receiving allogeneic blood transfusion. When comparing patients who had received allogeneic blood transfusion with those who had not received allogeneic blood transfusion, the rates of bone and joint infection (0.4% [fourteen of 3962] versus 0.2% [eighteen of 8215]; p = 0.056), of urinary tract infection (3.1% [123 of 3962] versus 2.5% [209 of 8215]; p = 0.551), and of other infections (3.0% [120 of 3962] versus 2.7% [225 of 8215]; p = 0.308) were not significantly different.

Conclusions: 

The rates of any infection, lower or upper respiratory tract and lung infection, and wound inflammation or infection were significantly increased after elective total hip or total knee arthroplasty in patients receiving allogeneic blood transfusion compared with those receiving autologous blood transfusion or no blood transfusion.

Level of Evidence: 

Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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