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The influence of prosthetic stem stiffness and of a calcar collar on stresses in the proximal end of the femur with a cemented femoral component
JL Lewis; MJ Askew; RL Wixson; GM Kramer; RR Tarr
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 1984 Feb 01;66(2):280-286
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We used three-dimensional finite-element models of the proximal end of the femur to examine the influence of stem material, stem geometry, and the use of a calcar collar on the stresses in and around implanted total hip-replacement femoral components. Anatomical bone geometries and realistic prosthetic geometries were considered. A slender titanium-alloy stem with a collar allows creation of calcar stresses of approximately 80 per cent of the anticipated normal levels. A similar stem of cobalt-chromium alloy creates calcar stresses of 67 per cent of these normal values. Stem designs without a collar were shown to generate no more than 40 per cent of normal values while larger, stiffer stems were seen to create less than 30 per cent of normal values, with or without a collar. Proximal cement stresses were increased by the use of titanium-alloy stems, but were reduced to low levels by a functioning collar. The highest cement stresses in the system were found near the tip of the stem, where titanium-alloy stems create lower stresses than do corresponding cobalt-chromium-alloy stems. The achievability of calcar loading with a titanium prosthesis was demonstrated in in vitro strain-gauge tests. Clinical Relevance: Loosening of the femoral stem and calcar resorption are problems that are seen in many long-term clinical series of total hip prostheses. In order to reduce the incidence of these problems, the goal of the designer of a prosthesis is to reduce cement and cement interface stresses around the femoral stem and to create stress distributions in the bone that will prevent resorption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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