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Instructional Course Lecture   |    
Instructional Course Lectures, The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - Instability of the Shoulder: Complex Problems and Failed Repairs. Part I. Relevant Biomechanics, Multidirectional Instability, and Severe Loss of Glenoid and Humeral Bone*†
EVAN L. FLATOW, M.D.‡, NEW YORK, N.Y.; JON J. P. WARNER, M.D.§, PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA
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An Instructional Course Lecture, The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 1998 Jan 01;80(1):122-40
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Historically, much of the literature on glenohumeral instability has concerned recurrent locked anterior glenohumeral dislocation. As the standard objective of operative intervention was the elimination of such a dislocation, many operations yielded a high proportion of successful results. However, increased attention to the special needs of active, athletic individuals has led to a higher standard for the success of operative reconstruction: the maintenance of full motion and strength in addition to the restoration of stability. Modern repair procedures avoid overtightening and emphasize restoration of the integrity of the capsular-ligamentous-labral complex. Although there is controversy as to whether an operation for unidirectional anterior instability should include a capsulorrhaphy in addition to repair of a Bankart lesion, most investigators agree that no more than a minor capsular tightening, with no procedure on bone, is needed for this most common type of shoulder instability60,75,88,100.
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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