The origin of the Internet is credited to the United States Department of Defense7,26, which developed ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) in the 1960s to allow researchers across the country to collaborate reliably with use of linked supercomputers in the event of a nuclear war or another emergency. Stanford University, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the University of Utah, and the University of California at Los Angeles were the first four universities to be connected to ARPANET, by means of telephone lines, in 1969. By 1971, twenty-three institutions were participating. In 1973, the first international connections were made. The first Usenet was founded in 1979, by students at the University of North Carolina and Duke University, as an electronic forum for discussing various topics. The term Internet was coined in 1981.