In this report, we present the results of a further follow-up of a series of 140 consecutive patients (161 hips) who had had a primary total hip arthroplasty with insertion of a bead-blasted monoblock femoral component with use of so-called second-generation cementing techniques. The average age of the patients at the time of the arthroplasty was sixty-one years (range, twenty-one to eighty-five years). Sixty-seven patients (seventy-seven hips) died less than seventeen years after the index operation. The remaining seventy-three patients (eighty-four hips) were followed for an average of eighteen years (range, seventeen to twenty years). No patient was lost to follow-up.In the entire group of 161 hips, over the twenty-year span of the study, eight femoral components (5 percent) and twenty-eight acetabular components (17 percent) had been revised because of aseptic loosening. Of the seventy-seven hips in the sixty-seven patients who died, four had been revised because of aseptic loosening of the acetabular component only; one, because of aseptic loosening of the femoral component only; and one, because of aseptic loosening of both components. Of the eighty-four hips in the seventy-three patients who were alive at least seventeen years after the index arthroplasty, twenty-four hips (29 percent) in twenty-one patients had had revision of one or both components for any reason. Twenty-three acetabular components (27 percent) and six femoral components (7 percent) had been revised because of aseptic loosening. An additional two hips (2 percent) in two patients were loose according to radiographic criteria but had not been revised.Of the sixty-five all-polyethylene acetabular components that had been inserted with cement and were in patients who were alive at least seventeen years postoperatively, fifteen (23 percent) had been revised because of aseptic loosening. An additional seventeen cups (26 percent) were loose according to radiographic criteria. Thus, a total of thirty-two cups (49 percent) had been revised because of loosening or were loose but had not been revised at the time of the latest follow-up.The femoral components that had been inserted with use of second-generation cementing techniques fared better than did the acetabular components that had been inserted with these techniques during the same time-period.We found that assessment of all postoperative radiographs rather than only those that had been made immediately postoperatively increased the accuracy of the grading of the cement around the femoral component. Subsequent radiographs frequently had been made at different projections, which revealed new findings, consisting primarily of previously undetected voids, areas of thin cement, and defects in the cement mantle. Thus, we now use all available radiographs to determine the grade of the cement.