We reviewed the results of 212 total hip arthroplasties performed without cement in 203 unselected, consecutive patients who were sixty-five years of age or older. The outcome was known for 196 hips, thirty-seven of which had been followed until the death of the patient and 159 of which had been followed for a minimum of five years. A reoperation was done in 4 percent (seven) of the 196 hips. These reoperations included one revision because of loosening of the stem and five revisions of the cup. Three of the acetabular revisions were done because of fracture due to polyethylene wear; one, because of recurrent dislocation; and one, because of polyethylene wear and a fracture due to lysis. In the seventh reoperation, a cup and stem were exchanged because of infection. The probability that a hip prosthesis would survive twelve years without a reoperation was 0.92 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.85 to 0.99).We evaluated the clinical results for 152 patients who had not had a reoperation and had been followed for at least five years (mean, 8.5 years; range, five to fourteen years). Of these patients, thirteen (9 percent) had pain that limited activity: five (3 percent) had pain in the thigh (four patients) or groin (one patient), and eight (5 percent) had trochanteric pain and tenderness. One hundred and forty-four (95 percent) of the patients noted an improvement in overall function, and 149 (98 percent) reported satisfaction with the outcome.One hundred and thirty-five hips that were not revised were followed radiographically for at least five years (mean, 8.2 years; range, five to fourteen years). In this group, osteolysis was observed in three hips (2 percent); loosening of the cup, in three (2 percent); and loosening of the stem, in one (1 percent). Stress-shielding was seen on the two-year postoperative radiographs of forty-five (26 percent) of the 174 hips that were followed for at least that duration. The prevalence of osteolysis, loosening of a component, and reoperations was no greater in this subgroup than in the overall group.These results indicate that total hip arthroplasty without cement can be successful in older patients. This study also provides a reference for comparison with the results of total hip arthroplasty performed with cement and those of so-called hybrid total hip arthroplasty (an acetabular component fixed without cement and a femoral component fixed with cement) in patients who are sixty-five years of age or older.