The purpose of our study was to examine the clinical and technical problems associated with reconstruction of the hip in patients who had congenital dysplasia and to offer recommendations for their solution.We reviewed the records on 123 consecutive total hip arthroplasties that had been performed by one of us (M. E. M.), between 1981 and 1986, for the treatment of coxarthrosis due to congenital dysplasia of the hip. A minimum of five years of follow-up was required for inclusion in the study. The study group consisted of seventy patients who had had a total of eighty-seven reconstructions. According to the classification of Crowe et al., eleven hips had type-IV acetabular dysplasia; sixty-five, type-III; and eleven, type-II. Acetabular reconstruction was performed with use of the Müller acetabular roof-reinforcement ring and a polyethylene cup, which was inserted with cement. Autologous graft from the femoral head was used in forty-two hips. Femoral reconstruction was performed with use of the Müller straight-stem component for congenital dysplasia of the hip in eighty hips and with use of a standard Müller straight-stem component in seven hips.At an average of 9.4 years (range, five to fifteen years) postoperatively, the result was described as excellent for sixty hips (69 per cent), as good for twenty-three (26 per cent), as fair for two (2 per cent), and as poor for two. Nine (10 per cent) of the hips had been revised. One revision had been performed because of aseptic loosening of the acetabular component; one, because of aseptic loosening of the femoral component; one, because of aseptic loosening of both components; and six, because of infection. Of the unrevised hips, three had had superior migration of the acetabular component of less than five millimeters, and mild protrusio had developed in one. Two hips had a continuous radiolucent line around the acetabular construct. Two hips had had subsidence of the femoral stem of less than three millimeters; one had a complete, non-progressive radiolucent line at the bone-cement interface; and four had a radiolucent line at the proximal part of the bone-cement interface. Six hips had evidence of endosteal osteolysis. Six hips had grade-III or IV heterotopic ossification according to the system of Brooker et al.These results compare favorably with others in the literature. We recommend restoration of the anatomical hip center with the use of an acetabular roof-reinforcement ring and a polyethylene cup inserted with cement for the reconstruction of a deficient acetabulum. The acetabular reinforcement ring prevents resorption of bone graft and migration of the cup, which are major causes of failure of the cup in patients who have had a reconstruction of a deficient acetabulum. Bone graft should be used medially and superiorly as needed to augment bone stock notably. Cement should not be used to fill acetabular defects as we believe that it contributes to aseptic loosening.