Background: Most total elbow prostheses that are currently in use require cement for fixation of each component. We developed a new (type-5) prosthesis that does not need cement for fixation.Methods: The humeral component is made of cobalt-chromium alloy, and its stem is porous-coated with a plasma spray of titanium alloy. There are two options for the ulnar component: an all-polyethylene type and a metal-backed type with a porous-coated stem. Forty-three elbows in thirty-seven patients who had rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total elbow replacement arthroplasty with use of the type-5 prosthesis. The humeral component was implanted without cement in all elbows, whereas the ulnar component was implanted without cement in eleven elbows and was fixed with cement in the remaining thirty-two. The elbows were followed for an average of three years and ten months (range, two years and six months to five years and six months).Results: The clinical results were assessed according to a modification of the Mayo Clinic Performance Index. At the time of the latest follow-up, the overall result was excellent for six elbows, good for thirty-one, and fair for six. All elbows had been rated as poor before the operation. There was almost complete relief of pain in twenty-nine elbows and mild or occasional pain in the remaining fourteen. Flexion increased markedly, from an average of 104 degrees preoperatively to an average of 133 degrees postoperatively; this difference was highly significant (p < 0.001, Student t test). In contrast, extension (flexion contracture) worsened slightly, from an average of 38 degrees preoperatively to an average of 42 degrees postoperatively; this difference was significant (p < 0.05).There was one postoperative dislocation of the elbow, and ectopic bone formed in another, with recurrence of ankylosis. Both elbows had a reoperation, and a good result eventually was obtained. There were no instances of postoperative infection or neuropathy of the ulnar nerve.Radiographically, there were no radiolucent lines at the bone-metal interface of any of the humeral or ulnar stems that had been implanted without cement, suggesting solid fixation by osseointegration.Conclusions: The results of total elbow arthroplasty with use of this prosthesis appear promising. There was a high rate of relief of pain as well as of restoration of adequate function in patients in whom the elbow was severely affected by rheumatoid arthritis.