Arthritic disease of the knee joint hindering lifestyle choices
in an active aging population has become increasingly frequent.
The pathology within the knee joint can vary from localized unicompartmental
arthritis to end-stage tricompartmental arthritis. Associated conditions
include extensive meniscal degeneration, ligamentous instability,
localized articular cartilage defects, limb malalignment, and joint-line
obliquity. Nonoperative treatments to reduce the pain associated
with joint inflammation include activity modification, weight loss,
anti-inflammatory or analgesic medications, intra-articular injections, periarticular
muscle-strengthening, and stress-offloading with braces or heel-wedges.
However, when the pain and associated impairment do not resolve
satisfactorily with nonoperative modalities, surgical intervention
may be considered.