Background: In the presence of large extra-articular deformity, complex imbalance of the collateral ligaments may result if standard techniques of soft-tissue releases and intra-articular bone resection are used during total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this paper is to review our experience with simultaneous corrective osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty for the treatment of severe extra-articular femoral deformity associated with ipsilateral osteoarthritis of the knee.
Methods: The results of simultaneous corrective osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty in eleven knees with osteoarthritis and associated extra-articular angular deformity of the femur were reviewed retrospectively. The femoral deformity resulted from fracture malunion in ten knees and from hypophosphatemic rickets in one. There were five primarily uniplanar deformities (four varus deformities and one antecurvatum deformity), five biplanar (varus and antecurvatum) deformities, and one triplanar (varus, antecurvatum, and internal rotation) deformity. Four knees were approached through a standard medial parapatellar arthrotomy and seven, through an anterolateral subvastus approach with an osteotomy of the tibial tubercle. The site of the femoral osteotomy was fixed with a blade-plate in seven patients, a press-fit long-stemmed femoral component in two, and a retrograde femoral nail in two. An extramedullary alignment system was utilized in eight patients, and intramedullary alignment was used in three.
Results: The duration of follow-up averaged forty-six months (range, twenty-six to eighty-eight months). According to the classification system of the Knee Society, the mean function score increased from 22 points preoperatively to 81 points at the time of follow-up and the mean knee score increased from 10 points preoperatively to 87 points at the time of follow-up. The mean flexion contracture decreased from 19 degrees preoperatively to 2 degrees at the time of follow-up. The arc of motion averaged 56 degrees (range, 30 to 75 degrees) preoperatively and 89 degrees (range, 65 to 115 degrees) at the time of follow-up. The mechanical alignment in the coronal plane was restored to within 2 degrees of normal in each patient. Ten femoral osteotomy sites healed, and one, in a patient treated with a press-fit long-stemmed femoral component, had not healed by the time of follow-up. All seven sites of the tibial tubercle osteotomies healed. There were no complete radiolucent lines at the prosthetic interfaces, and no total knee arthroplasty was revised. One patient had a nonfatal postoperative pulmonary embolism. As determined by clinical examination and the patients' assessment of function, no ligament imbalance was noted at the time of the most recent follow-up.
Conclusions: Simultaneous femoral osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty is a technically difficult but effective treatment for patients with severe femoral deformity associated with ipsilateral osteoarthritis of the knee. We recommend that the femoral osteotomy site be secured with a plate or a locked intramedullary nail, depending on the location of the deformity and the subsequent osteotomy.