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The Effect of Osteogenic Protein-1 on the Healing of Segmental Bone Defects Treated with Autograft or Allograft Bone
Samantha L. Salkeld, MS; Laura Popich Patron, BS; Robert L. Barrack, MD; Stephen D. Cook, PhD
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Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana
Samantha L. Salkeld, MS
Laura Popich Patron, BS
Robert L. Barrack, MD
Stephen D. Cook, PhD
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112. E-mail address for S.D. Cook: scook2@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu

In support of their research or preparation of this manuscript, one or more of the authors received grants or outside funding from Stryker Biotech. In addition, one or more of the authors received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity (Stryker Biotech). No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.

J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2001 Jun 01;83(6):803-816
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Background: Large amounts of bone graft are frequently used to elicit the healing of bone defects resulting from reconstructive procedures. Autograft and allograft bone are often used, but each has its limitations. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) improve the healing of segmental bone defects treated with autograft or allograft. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of implantation of a recombinant osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) in combination with bone graft on the healing of a critical-sized (2.5-cm) segmental defect in canine ulnae.

Methods: Either autograft bone, allograft bone, osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) mixed with type-1 bovine collagen, or various combinations of OP-1 and collagen (OP-1 device) mixed with allograft or autograft were implanted in the segmental bone defects. The combinations included 67% bone graft with 33% OP-1 device and 33% bone graft with 67% OP-1 device. The healing of the defects was assessed with radiographic, biomechanical, and histological studies. The animals were killed at twelve weeks postoperatively.

Results: The use of the OP-1 device alone or any combination of autograft or allograft bone and the OP-1 device demonstrated improved healing on radiographic, mechanical, and histological studies compared with that demonstrated after use of autograft or allograft bone alone. The highest radiographic and histological grades and the greatest mechanical strength were achieved with the use of 33% allograft and 67% OP-1 device, although no significant differences were observed among the different groups containing the OP-1 device. At twelve weeks postoperatively, the defects treated with any amount of the OP-1 device obtained greater mechanical strength than that obtained by autograft bone alone.

Conclusions: Major bone defects may be treated with allograft bone combined with the OP-1 device, instead of autograft alone, to avoid complications associated with the use of autograft. The combination of allograft bone and the OP-1 device resulted in optimum healing of the defect, according to the radiographic, mechanical, and histological parameters measured in this study.

Clinical Relevance: The combination of freeze-dried allograft bone with the OP-1 device is an attractive graft material for the treatment of large bone defects. Although similar results were observed when autogenous bone graft was used in combination with the OP-1 device, the results of the present study suggest that allograft, because of its relatively unlimited supply, can be substituted without reduced efficacy. In addition, avoiding the need to harvest autogenous bone eliminates the additional operative time and risk associated with a second surgical procedure.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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