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Long-Term Results of Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Following Bone-Grafting of the Glenoid
James M. Hill, MD; Tom R. Norris, MD
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Investigation performed at California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California
James M. Hill, MD
Orthopaedic Associates, 1300 East Central Road, Arlington Heights, IL 60005

Tom R. Norris, MD
California Pacific Medical Center, 2351 Clay Street, Suite 510, San Francisco, CA 94115

No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article. No funds were received in support of this study.

J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2001 Jun 01;83(6):877-883
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Background: The marked loss of glenoid bone volume or alteration of glenoid version can affect glenoid component fixation in patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results associated with the use of bone-grafting for restoration of glenoid volume and version at the time of total shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: Twenty-one shoulders received an internally fixed, corticocancellous bone graft for the restoration of peripheral glenoid bone stock at the time of total shoulder arthroplasty between 1980 and 1989. Grafting was indicated when glenoid bone stock was insufficient to maintain adequate version or fixation of the prosthesis. Seventeen shoulders were available for follow-up; the average duration of follow-up for the thirteen shoulders that did not have prosthetic failure within the first two years was seventy months. Total shoulder arthroplasty was performed because of osteoarthritis in five shoulders, chronic anterior fracture-dislocation in five, capsulorrhaphy arthropathy in three, inflammatory arthritis in two, recurrent dislocation in one, and failure of a previous arthroplasty in one. All patients had some form of anterior or posterior instability preoperatively. There were five anterior and twelve posterior glenoid defects. Bone from the resected humeral head was used for grafting in fifteen shoulders, and bicortical iliac-crest bone was used in two.

Results: The average glenoid version after grafting was 4° of retroversion, with an average correction of 33°. The graft failed to maintain the original correction in three shoulders due to nonunion, dissolution, or shift. Five total shoulder replacements failed, necessitating glenoid revision at two to ninety-one months postoperatively. The failures were associated with recurrent massive cuff tears (one shoulder), persistent instability (two shoulders), improper component placement (one shoulder), and loss of graft fixation (one shoulder). There were no humeral component failures. According to the criteria of Neer et al., the functional result was rated as excellent in three shoulders, satisfactory in six, and unsatisfactory in eight.

Conclusions: Despite the finding that eight shoulders had an unsatisfactory functional result at the time of long-term follow-up, corticocancellous grafting of the glenoid successfully restored glenoid version and volume in fourteen of the seventeen shoulders in the present study. Patients with glenoid deficiency often have associated glenohumeral instability, which may affect the results of total shoulder arthroplasty. Bone-grafting of the glenoid is a technically demanding procedure that can restore bone stock in patients with structural defects.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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